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Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Umoja Innercore Estate, Nairobi 预览
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作者 V. Nyakundi G. Munala +3 位作者 M. Makworo J. Shikuku M. Ali E. Song’oro 《水资源与保护(英文)》 2020年第1期36-49,共14页
Water quality is one of the main indicators of the quality of service provided to consumers. Quality has an impact on both the public health and aesthetic value of water as a consumable product. Kenya is classified as... Water quality is one of the main indicators of the quality of service provided to consumers. Quality has an impact on both the public health and aesthetic value of water as a consumable product. Kenya is classified as a water-scarce country with only 647 cubic meters of renewable freshwater per capita. Water distributed in Nairobi is faced with a myriad of challenges leading to a compromise to its quality. This study focused on evaluating quality of drinking water since human health depends on adequate, clean, reliable water. Analyses were carried out at National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) accredited Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) laboratories to determine the chemical, bacteriological and physical characteristics of consumed water in Umoja Innercore Estate in Nairobi. In the study area, 7 HH and 6 BH sites were randomly distributed. pH, turbidity and temperature measurements were analyzed in-situ while bacteria and chemicals were analyzed in laboratories. The study found that 100% of boreholes recorded unsatisfactory water with up to 1100 of Escherichia coli (E. coli) showing high contamination with faecal coliforms and 83% of boreholes recording pH of up to 9.53. Dissolved oxygen was 5.08 mg/L below recommended 12.0 mg/L, salinity of 0.47 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L for boreholes and households respectively. The study reveals the deprived quality of water available to the residents of Umoja Innercore, Nairobi. The study recommends the use of biosand filtration methods for septic tanks, digging of deeper boreholes and lining septic tanks with impermeable materials to prevent contamination of ground water with raw water from septic. 展开更多
关键词 DRINKING Water QUALITY ASSESSMENT QUALITY MONITORING NAIROBI
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Assessment of Toxicity Potential of Sedimentary PAHS from Refome Lake, South-East Nigeria over the Last Century 预览
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作者 Inyang O Oyo-Ita Emmanuella E Oyo-Ita +2 位作者 Ekpo O Ikip Bassey B Asuquo Orok E Oyo-Ita 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第1期1-15,共15页
In this study, toxic equivalent factors and sediment quality guidelines were employed for the assessment of toxicity potential of PAHs in 2 sediment cores collected from the center (RC) and shoreline (RS) of Reforme l... In this study, toxic equivalent factors and sediment quality guidelines were employed for the assessment of toxicity potential of PAHs in 2 sediment cores collected from the center (RC) and shoreline (RS) of Reforme lake, SE Nigeria over the last ~1 century. Boundary cross plots of isomeric ratios such as Ant/Ant + Phe (>0.1) vs. Fl/Fl + Pyr (>0.4) and BaA/BaA + Chry (>0.35) vs. Icdp/Icdp + Bper (>0.2) indicated biomass combustion/domestic coal utilization as the main sources of PAHs input. The result revealed toxicity unit indices (TU1, 1.22 - 1.57) for the two cores were above the thresholds of no effect. The highest TU1 value found in the near-bottom layer (RS5, 20 - 25 cm) of the RS corresponding to geological time-frame ~1930-1947 coincided with the period of inhabitation by the European settlers along the lake’s catchments when coal or coal products utilization for domestic and recreational purposes was at its peak. On the other hand, TU2 values were <1 at all depth intervals, revealing unlikely PAH effects to resident organisms. Total toxicity equivalency factors (TEqFs) for the surface sediment of RS and RC were 9.29 ng/g TEqFs and 9.16 ng/g TEqFs, respectively, and indicated that more attention should be paid to BaPyr accumulation in the lake’s sediment. 展开更多
关键词 TOXICITY PAHS Refome LAKE Sediment CORES ASSESSMENT Source
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基于云模型的海上船舶溢油应急管理能力评估方法 预览
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作者 陈伟炯 苏俊方 +2 位作者 张善杰 尹方 焦宇 《中国安全生产科学技术》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期110-116,共7页
为更好地解决海上船舶溢油应急管理能力评估过程中的不确定性问题,提出1种基于区间二型模糊层次分析法的云模型综合评估方法。针对评估体系的局部性,借鉴PPRR应急管理过程理论,对影响船舶溢油应急管理能力的因素进行分级和分类,构建全... 为更好地解决海上船舶溢油应急管理能力评估过程中的不确定性问题,提出1种基于区间二型模糊层次分析法的云模型综合评估方法。针对评估体系的局部性,借鉴PPRR应急管理过程理论,对影响船舶溢油应急管理能力的因素进行分级和分类,构建全局评估指标体系;分别运用区间二型模糊层次分析法和逆向云发生器确定各指标权重和云模型参数;通过浮动云和综合云算法获得最终评估结果。结果表明:将5个评估等级和评估结果进行仿真得出评估云的“云滴”图可显示出评估结果的能力等级以及评估结果的可信度和稳定性。计算某海区船舶溢油应急管理能力的评估等级为“较好”,即管辖该海区的海事管理部门能较好地解决海上船舶溢油突发事故,验证了所提方法的可行性和有效性。 展开更多
关键词 云模型 区间二型模糊层次分析法 船舶溢油应急管理能力 评估 PPRR应急理论
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阴道三维宫腔超声造影诊断宫腔粘连的价值 预览
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作者 涂友梅 陈莞春 吕晓亮 《中国当代医药》 2020年第4期186-188,192,共4页
目的探讨阴道三维宫腔超声造影诊断宫腔粘连的价值。方法选取2017年1月~2018年12月我院妇科门诊收治的36例疑似宫腔粘连患者作为研究对象,所有患者均首先进行阴道三维超声检查,然后进行阴道三维宫腔超声造影检查。最终经宫腔镜检查确诊... 目的探讨阴道三维宫腔超声造影诊断宫腔粘连的价值。方法选取2017年1月~2018年12月我院妇科门诊收治的36例疑似宫腔粘连患者作为研究对象,所有患者均首先进行阴道三维超声检查,然后进行阴道三维宫腔超声造影检查。最终经宫腔镜检查确诊为宫腔粘连患者28例。比较两种诊断方式的诊断阳性率、漏诊率、误诊率、正确率、敏感性、特异性。结果阴道三维宫腔超声造影的诊断阳性率高于阴道三维超声检查(P<0.05);阴道三维宫腔超声造影的漏诊率、误诊率低于阴道三维超声检查(P<0.05);阴道三维宫腔超声造影的正确率高于阴道三维超声检查(P<0.05);阴道三维宫腔超声造影的敏感性、特异性均高于阴道三维超声检查诊断(P<0.05)。结论阴道三维宫腔超声造影能更准确地诊断宫腔粘连,与普通阴道三维超声比较,具有漏诊率、误诊率低,正确率高等优点,值得在临床上进一步推广。 展开更多
关键词 阴道三维宫腔超声造影 普通阴道三维 宫腔粘连 宫腔镜检查 评估
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气候变化对茶叶生产影响评估技术 预览
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作者 谭化红 《农业灾害研究》 2020年第1期55-57,83,共4页
利用福泉市气象局1981—2016年降水、气温、日照的观测资料,分析了该地区近36年来的气候变化特征,并对气候变化以及气象灾害对茶叶生产的影响进行了分析评估,以期为茶叶优质高产提供参考借鉴。近年来,福泉市降水、气温、日照等气候因子... 利用福泉市气象局1981—2016年降水、气温、日照的观测资料,分析了该地区近36年来的气候变化特征,并对气候变化以及气象灾害对茶叶生产的影响进行了分析评估,以期为茶叶优质高产提供参考借鉴。近年来,福泉市降水、气温、日照等气候因子均起伏变化较大。尤其是气温日益变暖,极易引发极端灾害性天气,对福泉市的茶叶生产造成不利影响。从福泉市的具体情况可知,风险度最大的为干旱,其次是暴雨洪涝、风雹以及低温冷害。 展开更多
关键词 气候变化 茶叶生产 影响 评估
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一起“器官假捐案”引发的思考
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作者 李钢 徐青松 《中国卫生法制》 2020年第2期88-90,共3页
通过对一起"器官假捐案"的剖析厘清诸多法律问题,比较侮辱尸体罪和组织出卖人体器官罪的差别,把握合法的器官捐献程序,提出完善法规应重点发力之处。
关键词 器官捐献 侮辱 评估 单位犯罪
公共决策视野下药品临床综合价值的界定、测量与评价 预览
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作者 孔凡心 马爱霞 +1 位作者 李洪超 唐文熙 《中国药房》 CAS 北大核心 2020年第5期539-544,共6页
目的:为我国公共决策视野下评估及应用药品临床综合价值进行科学决策提供依据。方法:结合相关文件和文献、其他国家或地区药品临床综合价值指标,确定我国药品临床综合价值评价的核心指标,对各指标概念及评价方法进行梳理和分析,并提出... 目的:为我国公共决策视野下评估及应用药品临床综合价值进行科学决策提供依据。方法:结合相关文件和文献、其他国家或地区药品临床综合价值指标,确定我国药品临床综合价值评价的核心指标,对各指标概念及评价方法进行梳理和分析,并提出相关建议。结果与结论:笔者建议我国药品临床综合价值评价的核心指标为安全性与有效性、经济性与可支付性、可及性与公平性、依从性、适宜性。其中安全性、有效性、经济性、可支付性和依从性的概念界定清晰,评价方法系统,数据来源充分,研究设计国际间存在共识。可及性尚未有统一定义,包含可获得性、可供应性、可利用性、可负担性和用药及时性。公平性概念界定清晰,评价方法系统,但数据来源不够充分。适宜性通过药品适宜性指数进行评价但缺乏清晰的概念界定。以有效性为例,有效性包括中间指标、结果指标和生命质量指标,常采用流行病学研究、系统评价与专家共识确认。笔者建议在选取或制订药品临床综合价值指标时尽可能采用真实世界的研究数据,借助多准则决策分析,由专业评估机构提供技术支持,配合专家和研究人员对上述指标赋权,形成不同公共决策部门对于一项药品的临床综合价值判断,从而决定是否采购、临床使用和纳入医保。 展开更多
关键词 公共决策视野 药品临床综合价值 测量 评价 决策
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老年人久坐行为评估及影响因素研究进展
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作者 李星茹 张静 《中华现代护理杂志》 2020年第4期557-560,共4页
久坐是老年人最常见的不良行为习惯,严重影响其健康水平与生存质量,本文综述了老年人久坐行为的研究现状、评估方法以及影响因素,旨在为我国老年人久坐行为的干预研究提供参考。
关键词 综述 老年人 久坐行为 评估 影响
慕课在麻醉科住院医师规范化培训中的应用 预览
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作者 吴佳旻 张延卓 《中国继续医学教育》 2020年第1期26-28,共3页
目的研究慕课及其考核网络系统在麻醉科住院医师规范化培训中的教学效果。方法将2016级和2017级麻醉科住院医师规范化培训的学员随机分为两组,对照组进行传统的教学,实验组应用慕课进行教学,两组住院医师在完成规定的教学任务后参加考核... 目的研究慕课及其考核网络系统在麻醉科住院医师规范化培训中的教学效果。方法将2016级和2017级麻醉科住院医师规范化培训的学员随机分为两组,对照组进行传统的教学,实验组应用慕课进行教学,两组住院医师在完成规定的教学任务后参加考核,并将考核结果进行对比。结果应用慕课进行教学节省了教师教学成本,节省了学生的时间。此方法不仅顺利完成了麻醉科住培医师考核的一部分,减轻了其考核的压力,而且学生可以利用业余时间完成考核。结论慕课在麻醉科住院医师规范化培训中具有重要作用,是住院医师规范化培训的一种新的教学模式,将住院医师规范化培训推上一个新的台阶。 展开更多
关键词 麻醉科 住院医师规范化培训 慕课 教学 考核 网络
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炎症性肠病病人生活质量的研究进展 预览
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作者 周宇 关红 +3 位作者 高莉莉 刘梦雅 吴丽 赵方方 《护理研究》 北大核心 2020年第2期264-268,共5页
介绍炎症性肠病、生活质量相关概念,对炎症性肠病病人生活质量的测评工具、影响因素及干预措施进行综述,为医护人员提高炎症性肠病病人活质量提供借鉴。
关键词 护理 炎症性肠病 生活质量 评估 疾病活动度 疲劳 病耻感 干预措施
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共生视角下中国区域“水-能源-粮食”复合系统适配性评估 预览
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作者 支彦玲 陈军飞 +2 位作者 王慧敏 刘钢 朱外明 《中国人口资源与环境》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期129-139,共11页
水资源、能源和粮食是人类生存发展的基础资源,三者之间的交互关系被称为“水-能源-粮食”纽带。中国水资源、能源和粮食(耕地)资源时空分布不匹配,影响资源流动效率。随着资源供需矛盾加剧,资源管理方式亟需从“单资源”规划向“多资... 水资源、能源和粮食是人类生存发展的基础资源,三者之间的交互关系被称为“水-能源-粮食”纽带。中国水资源、能源和粮食(耕地)资源时空分布不匹配,影响资源流动效率。随着资源供需矛盾加剧,资源管理方式亟需从“单资源”规划向“多资源”协同转变,因此,开展“水-能源-粮食”复合系统适配性评估对推动多资源协同管理具有重要意义。本文引入共生理论,构建“水-能源-粮食”系统共生架构,提出区域“水-能源-粮食”系统适配概念,将“水-能源-粮食”系统适配性分解为稳定性、协调性和可持续性,基于压力-状态-影响-响应(PSIR)模型构建适配性评估指标体系,对2000—2016年我国区域“水-能源-粮食”系统适配性进行综合评估。研究表明:①可持续性对“水-能源-粮食”复合系统适配性影响最大,协调性是适配性提升的短板,稳定性是适配性的重要基础。②我国“水-能源-粮食”复合系统的整体适配性、协调性、可持续性水平呈上升趋势,增长速度先快后慢,稳定性指数小幅波动,趋于平稳。③我国“水-能源-粮食”复合系统适配性时空分异特征明显,东北、东部地区的适配性水平相对较高,主要呈上升趋势;中部、西部地区的适配性水平相对较低,主要呈下降趋势。根据评估结果,提出以下建议:①加强水资源、能源、农业、土地等多部门协同,增加科技、水利、能源等方面投资力度,协调水-能源、水-粮食和能源-粮食关系,提高水资源、能源和粮食系统之间转化效率。②引导自然资源从富集区域向匮乏区域流动,引导高端产业、先进技术和投资等社会资源从发达地区向自然资源富集区域转移,缓解资源匮乏区供需矛盾,提高资源附加值,促进区域协同发展。 展开更多
关键词 水-能源-粮食 适配性 共生 评估
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基于创新能力提升的CDIO工程教学改革研究 预览
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作者 张芹 何彦虎 王秦越 《教育教学论坛》 2020年第9期139-140,共2页
针对现阶段课程教学缺乏对学生进行社会和环境的认知与责任教育,缺乏企业实际考核评价,不能满足企业用人需求,文章以“创新能力提升”为导向,以机械设计基础课程为例,构建基于“创新能力提升”CDIO教学体系,研究教学任务设计、实施、考... 针对现阶段课程教学缺乏对学生进行社会和环境的认知与责任教育,缺乏企业实际考核评价,不能满足企业用人需求,文章以“创新能力提升”为导向,以机械设计基础课程为例,构建基于“创新能力提升”CDIO教学体系,研究教学任务设计、实施、考核评价方法,以提高学生解决实际问题能力、创新能力以及职业素养等综合职业能力,培养善于解决问题、具有创新精神、富有责任感的高素质高技能人才。 展开更多
关键词 CDIO 创新能力 职业素养 考核评价
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测试视角下地方高校EMI与CMI教学效果实证研究 预览
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作者 温湘频 《上饶师范学院学报》 2020年第1期113-120,共8页
通过对两个对照小组分别实施EMI教学和CMI教学的学业测试结果研究,发现:(1)EMI授课基本达到了原定的教学目标;(2)EMI课程学生学业表现与CMI课程的学生学业表现大致等同;(3)EMI课程较CMI课程的学生而言,其受益更多。学生英语能力和教师... 通过对两个对照小组分别实施EMI教学和CMI教学的学业测试结果研究,发现:(1)EMI授课基本达到了原定的教学目标;(2)EMI课程学生学业表现与CMI课程的学生学业表现大致等同;(3)EMI课程较CMI课程的学生而言,其受益更多。学生英语能力和教师教学能力、教材选择和测试内容等也是影响EMI教学效果的重要因素。 展开更多
关键词 EMI CMI 测试 地方高校 个案研究
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Relationship between β-amyloid protein 1-42, thyroid hormone levels and the risk of cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke 预览
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作者 Lei Mao Xiao-Han Chen +6 位作者 Jian-Hua Zhuang Peng Li Yi-Xin Xu Yu-Chen Zhao Yue-Jin Ma Bin He You Yin 《世界临床病例杂志》 2020年第1期76-87,共12页
BACKGROUND Post-stroke cognitive impairment(PSCI)is not only a common consequence of stroke but also an important factor for adverse prognosis of patients.Biochemical indicators such as blood lipids and blood pressure... BACKGROUND Post-stroke cognitive impairment(PSCI)is not only a common consequence of stroke but also an important factor for adverse prognosis of patients.Biochemical indicators such as blood lipids and blood pressure are affected by many factors,and the ability of evaluating the progress of patients with PSCI is insufficient.Therefore,it is necessary to find sensitive markers for predicting the progress of patients and avoiding PSCI.Recent studies have shown thatβ-amyloid protein 1-42(Aβ1-42)and thyroid hormone levels are closely related to PSCI,which may be the influencing factors of PSCI,but there are few related studies.AIM To investigate the relationship between serum levels of Aβand thyroid hormones in acute stage and PSCI and its predicted value.METHODS A total of 195 patients with acute cerebral infarction confirmed from June 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled in this study.Baseline data and serological indicators were recorded to assess cognitive function of patients.All patients were followed up for 1 year.Their cognitive functions were evaluated within 1 wk,3 mo,6 mo and 1 yr after stroke.At the end of follow-up,the patients were divided into PSCI and non-PSCI according to Montreal cognitive assessment score,and the relationship between biochemical indexes and the progression of PSCI was explored.RESULTS Compared with patients with non-PSCI,the levels of Aβ1-42,triiodothyronine(T3)and free thyroxin were lower in the patients with PSCI.Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the overall content of Aβ1-42 and T3 in PSCI was also lower than that of the non-PSCI patients.Further analysis revealed that Aβ1-42(r=0.348),T3(r=0.273)and free thyroxin(r=0.214)were positively correlated with disease progression(P<0.05),suggesting that these indicators have the potential to predict disease progression and outcome.Cox regression analysis showed that Aβ1-42 and T3 were important factors of PSCI.Then stratified analysis showed that the lower the Aβ1-42 and T3,the higher risk of PSCI in patients who 展开更多
关键词 POST-STROKE COGNITIVE impairment TRIIODOTHYRONINE Β-AMYLOID PROTEIN Prognosis Montreal COGNITIVE assessment Free THYROXIN
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Probabilistic seismic landslide hazard assessment: a case study in Tianshui, Northwest China
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作者 WANG Tao LIU Jia-mei +2 位作者 SHI Ju-song GAO Meng-tan WU Shu-ren 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第1期173-190,共18页
Probabilistic analysis in the field of seismic landslide hazard assessment is often based on an estimate of uncertainties of geological, geotechnical,geomorphological and seismological parameters.However, real situati... Probabilistic analysis in the field of seismic landslide hazard assessment is often based on an estimate of uncertainties of geological, geotechnical,geomorphological and seismological parameters.However, real situations are very complex and thus uncertainties of some parameters such as water content conditions and critical displacement are difficult to describe with accurate mathematical models. In this study, we present a probabilistic methodology based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis method and the Newmark’s displacement model. The Tianshui seismic zone(105°00′-106°00′ E, 34°20′-34°40′ N) in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau were used as an example. Arias intensity with three standard probabilities of exceedance(63%, 10%, and 2% in 50 years) in accordance with building design provisions were used to compute Newmark displacements by incorporating the effects of topographic amplification.Probable scenarios of water content condition were considered and three water content conditions(dry,wet and saturated) were adopted to simulate the effect of pore-water on slope. The influence of 5 cm and 10 cm critical displacements were investigated in order to analyze the sensitivity of critical displacement to the probabilities of earthquake-induced landslide occurrence. The results show that water content in particular, have a great influence on the distribution of high seismic landslide hazard areas. Generally, the dry coverage analysis represents a lower bound for susceptibility and hazard assessment, and the saturated coverage analysis represents an upper bound to some extent. Moreover, high seismic landslide hazard areas are also influenced by the critical displacements. The slope failure probabilities during future earthquakes with critical displacements of 5 cm can increase by a factor of 1.2 to 2.3 as compared to that of 10 cm. It suggests that more efforts are required in order to obtain reasonable threshold values for slope failure. Considering the probable scenarios of water content cond 展开更多
关键词 Probabilistic analysis Seismic hazard Newmark’s method LANDSLIDES Displacement model Hazard assessment
Validity of studies suggesting preoperative chemotherapy for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer:A critical appraisal of randomized trials 预览
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作者 Giulia Manzini Ursula Klotz +1 位作者 Doris Henne-Bruns Michael Kremer 《世界胃肠肿瘤学杂志:英文版(电子版)》 CAS 2020年第1期113-123,共11页
BACKGROUND In 2015,Kidane published a Cochrane review and meta-analysis to summarise the impact of preoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone on survival for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer.The authors concl... BACKGROUND In 2015,Kidane published a Cochrane review and meta-analysis to summarise the impact of preoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone on survival for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer.The authors concluded that preoperative chemotherapy improved overall survival(OS).AIM The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the three most powerful studies included in the Cochrane review and the meta-analysis supporting the advantage of preoperative chemotherapy and to investigate the impact of an exclusion of these three studies on the result of the meta-analysis.METHODS OS was selected as the endpoint of interest.Among the ten included papers which analysed this endpoint,we identified the three publications with the highest weights influencing the final result.The validity of these papers was analysed using the CONSORT checklist for randomized controlled trials.We performed a new meta-analysis without the three studies to assess their impact on the general result of the original meta-analysis.RESULTS The three analysed studies revealed several inconsistencies.Inappropriate answers were found in up to one third of the items of the CONSORT checklist.Missing information about sample-size calculation and power,unclear or inadequate randomisation,and missing blinded set-up were the most common findings.When the three criticized studies were excluded in the meta-analysis,preoperative chemotherapy showed no benefit in OS.CONCLUSION The three most powerful publications in the Cochrane review show substantial deficits.After the exclusion of these studies from the meta-analysis,preoperative chemotherapy does not seem to result in an advantage in survival.We suggest a more critical appraisal regarding the validity of single studies. 展开更多
关键词 ESOPHAGEAL cancer Assessment of validity META-ANALYSIS CONSORT Overall SURVIVAL
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Review on Tidal Energy Technologies and Research Subjects 预览
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作者 Chul Hee JO Su Jin HWANG 《中国海洋工程:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2020年第1期137-150,共14页
Tidal current power is one of the promising and reliable renewable energies with the advantage of continuous and predictable resource. It can make stable electricity regardless of weather conditions or seasons all yea... Tidal current power is one of the promising and reliable renewable energies with the advantage of continuous and predictable resource. It can make stable electricity regardless of weather conditions or seasons all year around. The required technologies for tidal current power in the ocean have been developed for years and now recognized that it could be commercialized after intensive field tests and successful demonstrations. There are several tidal farm development projects in the world, such as the MeyGen project in UK with its commercialization at hand. However, various research subjects in the tidal current energy field are seeking improvements and industrialization of tidal current power in terms of economy and technical reliability. This paper introduces the resource assessment procedure of tidal energy that has been applied in Korea coastal regions. The key research subjects for tidal current power together with the interaction effect of multi-arrangement is described. Also, this paper is to introduce the research output of each subject such as turbine design, experimental validation, turbine interaction and wake, multi-array module, FSI (fluid-structure interaction), and duct application. 展开更多
关键词 tidal current power resource assessment turbine design experimental validation turbine interaction multi arrangement FSI(fluid-structure interaction)
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关于法定计量检定机构考核工作中的体会 预览
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作者 曹骞 胡洁 李爱群 《价值工程》 2020年第6期28-29,共2页
对法定计量检定机构进行考核审评是我国计量标准管理的规范化以及法制化要求,能够在一定的程度上提升法定计量检定机构的工作质量。本文主要是以法定计量检定机构的考评审核工作作为研究对象,阐述了考核评审工作的重要作用、考核内容及... 对法定计量检定机构进行考核审评是我国计量标准管理的规范化以及法制化要求,能够在一定的程度上提升法定计量检定机构的工作质量。本文主要是以法定计量检定机构的考评审核工作作为研究对象,阐述了考核评审工作的重要作用、考核内容及考核方法,希望能够提供给考评员、机构管理人员提供一些工作思路。 展开更多
关键词 法定计量检定机构 考核 体会
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A Review of English Test for International Communication (ETIC)-Based on an Example of Written Communication Task from ETIC "In⁃termediate" 预览
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作者 王莎 《海外英语》 2020年第2期128-130,共3页
The research examines a new accreditation test system of English Test for International Communication(ETIC)launched in 2016 and developed by China Language Assessment(a professional testing service established by Beij... The research examines a new accreditation test system of English Test for International Communication(ETIC)launched in 2016 and developed by China Language Assessment(a professional testing service established by Beijing Foreign Studies Uni⁃versity).The analysis and discussion is conducted through an example procedure of such assessment performance on ETIC.The rel⁃evant review aims to sort out the theoretical framework and main characteristic of the system,address the consequence and decision elicited from the assessment,and conclude the contribution of ETIC as a task-ability assessment to the use of language.It shows the interpretation of ETIC is generalizable and relevant to make the decision for test users.Such test system of ETIC is accountable to the stakeholders for the intended use.The research also puts forward the direction of the language assessment in China. 展开更多
关键词 ETIC AUA frame work Task characteristics Task-ability assessment Language ability
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造血干细胞移植后患者肠外营养管理的证据总结 预览
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作者 钟慧群 柴燕燕 +2 位作者 周春兰 姚晶晶 赵洁 《护理学杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2020年第3期84-86,93,共4页
目的评价并总结造血干细胞移植后患者肠外营养管理的最佳证据,为临床干预提供方案。方法计算机检索JBI循证护理数据库、英国卫生医疗质量标准署数据库、美国国立指南库、Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、中国知网、万方数据库的相关指南、证据... 目的评价并总结造血干细胞移植后患者肠外营养管理的最佳证据,为临床干预提供方案。方法计算机检索JBI循证护理数据库、英国卫生医疗质量标准署数据库、美国国立指南库、Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、中国知网、万方数据库的相关指南、证据总结、专家共识等,按文献质量评价原则和标准提取证据。结果共纳入6篇文献,其中证据总结1篇,指南2篇,系统评价1篇、专家共识2篇。纳入最佳证据14条,包括肠外营养评估、预防外渗及导管并发症、预防代谢异常及标签管理4个方面。结论总结的最佳证据可用于造血干细胞移植后患者肠外营养管理;临床应用过程中宜根据当时情形针对性地选择证据,以保障适用、安全。 展开更多
关键词 造血干细胞移植 肠外营养 评估 循证护理 证据总结 营养管理
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