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Disaster Risk Reduction Including Climate Change Adaptation Over South Asia: Challenges and Ways Forward
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作者 Rajesh K.Mall Ravindra K.Srivastava +3 位作者 Tirthankar Banerjee Om Prakash Mishra Diva Bhatt Geetika Sonkar 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期14-27,共14页
South Asia is vulnerable to a variety of hydrometeorological hazards, which are often crossboundary in nature. Climate change is expected to influence many of these hazards. Thus, climate-related risks over South Asia... South Asia is vulnerable to a variety of hydrometeorological hazards, which are often crossboundary in nature. Climate change is expected to influence many of these hazards. Thus, climate-related risks over South Asia make disaster risk reduction(DRR) and climate change adaptation(CCA) key policy goals.Recently there is an increasing consensus that DRR including CCA should be embedded in development planning. Disaster risk reduction including CCA has progressively gained importance in global governance. Across South Asia, however, such integration is only in a preliminary stage. This review was to assess the existing status and scope of DRR including CCA in development projects across South Asia, so that an effective and achievable deliberation may be made to regional policymakers. A total of 371 projects relevant to CCA and DRR were reviewed.The project inventory was diverse in nature with respect to location, scale, sectoral focus, and strategic importance.Bangladesh, India, and Bhutan were observed to be proactive in implementing DRR-and CCA-related projects.Meta-analysis of the project inventory suggests an urgent need for an individual and collaborative convergence of processes for DRR and CCA through policies,plans, strategies, and programs. 展开更多
关键词 CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DISASTER risk reduction SAARC South Asia
Coupling of a Regional Climate Model with a Crop Development Model and Evaluation of the Coupled Model across China 预览
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作者 Jing ZOU Zhenghui XIE +4 位作者 Chesheng ZHAN Feng CHEN Peihua QIN Tong HU Jinbo XIE 《大气科学进展:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期527-540,共14页
In this study,the CERES(Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis)crop model was coupled with CLM3.5,the land module of the regional climate model RegCM4.The new coupled model was named RegCM4 CERES;a... In this study,the CERES(Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis)crop model was coupled with CLM3.5,the land module of the regional climate model RegCM4.The new coupled model was named RegCM4 CERES;and in this model,crop type was further divided into winter wheat,spring wheat,spring maize,summer maize,early rice,late rice,single rice,and other crop types based on each distribution fraction.The development of each crop sub-type was simulated by the corresponding crop model separately,with each planting and harvesting date.A simulation test using RegCM4 CERES was conducted across China from 1999 to 2008;a control test was also performed using the original RegCM4.Data on crop LAI(leaf area index),soil moisture at 10 cm depth,precipitation,and 2 m air temperature were collected to evaluate the performance of RegCM4 CERES.The evaluation provided comparison of single-station time series,regional distributions,seasonal variations,and statistical indices for RegCM4 CERES.The results revealed that the coupled model had an excellent ability to simulate the phonological changes and spatial variations in crops.The consideration of dynamic crop development in RegCM4 CERES corrected the wet bias of the original RegCM4 over North China and the cold bias over South China.However,the degree of improvement was minimal and the statistical indices for RegCM4 CERES were roughly the same as the original RegCM4. 展开更多
关键词 MODEL EVALUATION MODEL COUPLING CROP development MODEL regional CLIMATE MODEL CLIMATE modeling
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Assessing the relative role of climate change and human activities in desertification of North China from 1981 to 2010
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作者 Duanyang XU Alin SONG +2 位作者 Dajing LI Xue DING Ziyu WANG 《地球科学前沿:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期43-54,共12页
Desertification is a severe environmental problem induced by both climate change and human activities.This study assessed the relative contribution of climate change,human activities,and different climatic and anthrop... Desertification is a severe environmental problem induced by both climate change and human activities.This study assessed the relative contribution of climate change,human activities,and different climatic and anthropogenic factors in desertification reversion and expansion of North China from 1981 to 2010.The results showed that the desertification of North China had changed significantly over the past 30 years;desertification reversion and expansion covered an area of 750,464 km^2, and the spatial distribution of these regions exhibited considerable heterogeneity.For desertification reversion, climate change and human activity accounted for 22.6% and 26%,respectively of total reverted land.Wind speed reduction and the improvement ofhydrothermal conditions were the most important climatic factors for desertification reversion in the arid region of Northwest China (ARNC) and the Three-River Headwaters region (TRHR),and the reduction in grassland use intensity was the most important anthropogenic factor related to desertification reversion in Inner Mongolia and regions along the Great Wall (IMGW). For desertification expansion,the relative role of climate change was more obvious,which was mainly attributed to the continuous reduction in precipitation in eastern IMGW, and the increase in grassland use intensity was the main factor underlying regional human-induced desertification expansion. 展开更多
关键词 DESERTIFICATION climate change human activity RELATIVE ROLE North China
Climate change induced eutrophication of cold-water lake in an ecologically fragile nature reserve
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作者 Xiaotian Lu Yonglong Lu +7 位作者 DeliangChen Chao Su Shuai Song Tieyu Wang Hanqin Tian Ruoyu Liang Meng Zhang Kifayatullah Khan 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期359-369,共11页
Aquatic ecosystem sustainability around the globe is facing crucial challenges because of increasing anthropogenic and natural disturbances.In this study,the Tianchi Lake,a typical cold-water lake and a UNESCO/MAB (Ma... Aquatic ecosystem sustainability around the globe is facing crucial challenges because of increasing anthropogenic and natural disturbances.In this study,the Tianchi Lake,a typical cold-water lake and a UNESCO/MAB (Man and Biosphere)nature reserve located in high latitude and elevation with the relatively low intensity of human activity was chosen as a system to examine the linkages between climate change and eutrophication.As a part of the UNESCO Bogda Man and Biosphere Reserve,Tianchi Lake has been well preserved for prevention from human intervention,but why has it been infected with eutrophication recent years? Our results show that climate change played a significant role in the eutrophication in the Tianchi Lake.Increased temperature,changed precipitation pattern and wind-induced hydrodynamic fluctuations in the summer season were suggested to make a major contribution to the accelerated eutrophication.The results also showed that the local temperature and precipitation changes were closely linked to the large-scale atmospheric circulation,which opens the door for the method to be applied in other regions without local climatic information.This study suggests that there is an urgent need to take into consideration of climate change adaptation into the conservation and management of cold-water lakes globally. 展开更多
关键词 EUTROPHICATION Climate change Atmospheric CIRCULATION ALPINE LAKES
Global climate effects of summer Tibetan Plateau
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作者 Ping Zhao Xiuji Zhou +2 位作者 Junming Chen Ge Liu Sulan Nan 《科学通报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第1期1-3,共3页
Because the Tibetan Plateau (TP)has the highest elevation in the world and is a key area affecting the Asian extreme weather and climate events,studies on the Tibetan Plateau meteorology have been highly concerned by ... Because the Tibetan Plateau (TP)has the highest elevation in the world and is a key area affecting the Asian extreme weather and climate events,studies on the Tibetan Plateau meteorology have been highly concerned by the international scientific community.In the late 1970s.Ye and Gao [1]reveled the climatic characteristics of the TP heating and its connection with global and regional atmospheric circulations.With the seasonal evolution from winter to summer,strong surface sensible heat regulates the timing of the establishment of the Asian summer monsoon [2].However,Boos and Kuang [3]addressed that the large-scale South Asian summer monsoon is unaffected by removal of the plateau,provided that the narrow orography of the Himalayas and adjacent mountain ranges is preserved,and revealed the domi- nance of the uplift of the Himalayas in the formation of the present South Asian summer monsoon.Then,does this indicate a weak effect of the summer TP thermal forcing on the variability of the present South Asian monsoon and larger-scale climates?Some dis- cussions have been also stimulated in Science [4]. 展开更多
关键词 The TIBETAN PLATEAU In the SUMMER The GLOBAL CLIMATE
Effect of Climate Change on Yield of Winter Wheat in Jiangsu Province 预览
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作者 Shun SHANG Xuhui ZHANG +1 位作者 Zhaotang SHANG Jing WU 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第1期224-229,234共7页
The spike-grain structure and yield data of winter wheat observed at 10 winter wheat observation stations in Jiangsu agrometeorological observation stations in the China Meteorological Observation Network were used to... The spike-grain structure and yield data of winter wheat observed at 10 winter wheat observation stations in Jiangsu agrometeorological observation stations in the China Meteorological Observation Network were used to design the assessment model and evaluation criteria of the effects of climate change on spike-grain structure and yield of winter wheat.The linear regression method was used to determine the parameters of the assessment model,and the climate fact extrapolation method was used to determine future climate change scenarios.The effects of climate change on spike-grain structure and yield of winter wheat in Jiangsu Province were calculated and analyzed finally.The results showed that with the climate change,the meteorological conditions during the growth and development of winter wheat changed,which caused the number of effective spikes to decrease,and the number of grains per spike and thousand-grain weight to increase,and this new type of spike-grain structure combination was beneficial to the increase of the unit yield of winter wheat.The variations of meteorological elements caused by climate change during winter wheat growth and development had different effects on spike-grain structure at different growth stages.The spike-grain structure had an"increasing-decreasing"periodic variation with the growth period overall,with a period of one to three stages.The relationship between winter wheat growth and development and meteorological conditions can be adjusted in real time through stress-resistant cultivation techniques to achieve the high-yield and high-quality cultivation target of winter wheat production. 展开更多
关键词 YIELD PER unit area Spike-grain structure Climate assessment
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古田山国家级自然保护区白颈长尾雉的分布格局及其季节变化
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作者 任鹏 余建平 +5 位作者 陈小南 申小莉 宋虓 张田田 余永泉 丁平 《生物多样性》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期13-23,共11页
为了解浙江省古田山国家级自然保护区内白颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus ellioti)的分布格局和季节变化, 2014年5月至2016年4月,我们对其进行了为期2年的网格化监测。共有44个公里网格拍摄到白颈长尾雉,独立探测数量为211次,雌雄性比为1:1.64。... 为了解浙江省古田山国家级自然保护区内白颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus ellioti)的分布格局和季节变化, 2014年5月至2016年4月,我们对其进行了为期2年的网格化监测。共有44个公里网格拍摄到白颈长尾雉,独立探测数量为211次,雌雄性比为1:1.64。白颈长尾雉主要分布在实验区和缓冲区,其探测率在常绿落叶阔叶混交林、杉木(Cunninghamialanceolata)林、针阔叶混交林、人工油茶(Camelliaoleifera)林和常绿阔叶林中依次递减,主要分布在海拔600–800 m。冬、春两季,白颈长尾雉活动强度和区域相对较小,而夏、秋两季活动强度和区域相对增加,其分布在海拔段(F4,12=3.76, P <0.05)和季节间(F3,12=3.34, P <0.05)都存在显著差异。对海拔和气候因子进行回归分析发现,日平均气温和海拔对白颈长尾雉是否出现均有极显著影响(P <0.01);白颈长尾雉月探测率和探测到白颈长尾雉位点的海拔均与月平均气温呈极显著正相关(P <0.001),而与月平均降水量无显著线性关系(P> 0.05)。这表明白颈长尾雉的活动在很大程度上受海拔和气温影响,随月平均气温的升高有向高海拔迁移的趋势。模型选择和多模型推断显示,最优模型仅保留“100 m内水源”这一个变量,次优模型是“100 m内水源×海拔”,最优和次优模型的权重分别为0.18和0.14,“100m内水源”和“海拔”是影响白颈长尾雉在保护区内分布的重要因子,重要值分别为0.82和0.51。因此,白颈长尾雉的分布并非仅由某一个或几个环境变量决定,而是由多个环境变量共同决定。气温的变化和对不同海拔段的选择是导致白颈长尾雉形成不同季节分布格局的原因。 展开更多
关键词 红外相机技术 白颈长尾雉 分布特征 气候 模型选择和多模型推断
Global, regional, and cladistic patterns of variation in climatic niche breadths in terrestrial elapid snakes
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作者 Long-Hui Lin Xia-Ming Zhu +2 位作者 Yu Du Meng-Chao Fang Xiang Ji 《动物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期1-9,共9页
We obtai ned geo-refere need occurre nee and climatic data from in dividual localities for 59 species of terrestrial elapid snakes, used phylogenetic generalized least squares regression to investigate spatial and cla... We obtai ned geo-refere need occurre nee and climatic data from in dividual localities for 59 species of terrestrial elapid snakes, used phylogenetic generalized least squares regression to investigate spatial and cladistic patter ns of variation in climatic niche breadths, and compared patter ns within and across regions and clades to see if they parallel or differ from each other. Specifically, we test (1) whether a species' climatic niche breadth on a given niche axis relates to its position along that axis, and to its climatic niche breadth on another niche axis, and (2) whether variation in niche breadths among species is explained by within-locality variation in climatic conditions or by among-locality variation. We found that:(1) there is an overall global patter n, and patter ns in individual regi ons or clades gen erally parallel each other and global patter ns;(2) species in wanner environments have narrower temperature niche breadths (TNBs);(3) precipitation niche breadth (PNB) and position are positively related;⑷ TNB and PNB are not related;and ⑸ within-locality variation in climatic conditions explains most variation in TNBs, whereas among-locality variation explains most variation in PNBs. Our results are consistent with those reported for lizards of the families Phrynosomatidae and Varanidae, con firm the importance of withi n-locality n iche breadth to species n iche breadth, and show a more im porta nt role of amon g-locality n iche breadth in affecting species niche breadth in terrestrial elapids than in lizards. 展开更多
关键词 climate ELAPIDAE NICHE BREADTH NICHE position NICHE variance precipitation temperature
Revisiting Emergency Food Reserve Policy and Practiceunder Disaster and Extreme Climate Events
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作者 Jonatan A.Lassa Paul Teng +1 位作者 Mely Caballero-Anthony Maxim Shrestha 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期1-13,共13页
All food systems will continue to be affected by disasters and extreme climate events. Triggered by recent food crises around the world and climate change concerns,some governments have been trying to develop more rob... All food systems will continue to be affected by disasters and extreme climate events. Triggered by recent food crises around the world and climate change concerns,some governments have been trying to develop more robust and resilient food systems. One of the oldest options for many governments is to stockpile emergency food reserves for the purpose of food security and disaster preparedness. In the aftermath of the world food price crises in2007–2008 and 2011, some governments in Asia have been maintaining emergency food reserves to ensure greater supply and price stability. Disasters and extreme climate events help governments to justify emergency food reserves. This research examined emergency food reserve policies in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia.Emergency food reserves emerged as a practice where the shared objectives of development, disaster risk reduction,and climate change adaptation have been demonstrated by governments. The findings suggest that most governments maintain the strong view that adequate emergency food reserves can buffer national food price shocks and shocks from disasters and climate change, and soften disruptions in trade due to export bans during times of disasters and climate emergencies.Under global climate change scenarios, food security is at risk and volatile(Porter et al. 2014). The expected increase in climate extremes has generated anticipatory actions from governments, including a new push for EFR policy adoption. Triggered by recent disasters and climate change concerns, some governments have been trying to develop more robust and resilient food systems(Fan and Brzeska 2014;Porter et al. 2014). For many countries in Asia, this means the renewed adoption of EFR. Unfortunately, we argue that this is not well understood in climate change adaptation studies as well as contemporary disaster studies.The Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN)first initiated a Food Security Reserve Agreement in 1979,with the purpose of meeting emergency requirements(ASEAN 1979). Po 展开更多
关键词 Climate change adaptation DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EMERGENCY FOOD RESERVES FOOD security FOOD stockpiling SOUTHEAST Asia
Climate Change, Water Scarcity, and Health Adaptation in Southwestern Coastal Bangladesh
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作者 Md.Anwarul Abedin Andrew E.Collins +1 位作者 Umma Habiba Rajib Shaw 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期28-42,共15页
Climate change may affect human health through multiple and interactive pathways that include safe water scarcity. However, impacts of climate change-induced water scarcity on health and well-being are complex.About 8... Climate change may affect human health through multiple and interactive pathways that include safe water scarcity. However, impacts of climate change-induced water scarcity on health and well-being are complex.About 80% of illnesses in developing countries are attributed to unsafe drinking water and waterborne diseases. In Southwestern Bangladesh, lack of safe drinking water is a severe crisis due to climate change. The study investigated the impacts of climate change on water resources and human health in a coastal area. A questionnaire survey was carried out in two villages of Shymnagar upazila on the southwestern coast to investigate the present status of safe water sources and health care facilities and their impacts on the local community. The results show that the local community believes that climate change is having substantial impacts on freshwater sources and health. More than 70% of the respondents identified diarrhea, dysentery,and skin diseases as the prime waterborne health risks that occur through climate-related safe water scarcity. By synthesizing the ground data, we suggest pathways to health adaptation to climate change effects and safe water scarcitythrough locally available adaptive practices such as the use of pond sand filters, rainwater harvesting, and importing potable water with the active participation of the government,nongovernmental organizations, and communities. 展开更多
关键词 Climate change HEALTH RISKS Safe water SCARCITY SOUTHWESTERN BANGLADESH WATERBORNE diseases
Permafrost warming along the Mo’he-Jiagedaqi section of the China-Russia crude oil pipeline
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作者 WANG Fei LI Guo-yu +4 位作者 MA Wei MAO Yun-cheng MU Yan-hu SERBAN Mihaela CAI Yong-jun 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第2期285-295,共11页
The permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline(CRCOP) is degrading since the pipeline operation in 2011. Heat dissipated from the pipeline, climate warming and anthropogenic activities leads to permafrost wa... The permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline(CRCOP) is degrading since the pipeline operation in 2011. Heat dissipated from the pipeline, climate warming and anthropogenic activities leads to permafrost warming. The processes of permafrost warming along the CRCOP were studied based on the monitoring of air and soil temperatures, and electrical resistivity tomography(ERT) surveys. Results show that:(1) the mean annual air temperature(MAAT) in permafrost regions along the CRCOP increased with a rate of 0.21°C/10a–0.40°C/10 a during the past five decades;(2) the mean annual ground temperature(MAGT, at-15 m depth) of undisturbed permafrost increased by 0.2°C and the natural permafrost table remained unchanged due to the zero-curtain effect;(3) permafrost surrounding the uninsulated pipeline right-of-way warmed significantly compared with that in a natural site. During 2012–2017, the MAGT and the artificial permafrost table, 2 m away from the pipeline centerline, increased at rates of 0.063°C/a and 1.0 m/a. The thaw bulb developed around the pipe and exhibits a faster lateral expansion;(4) 80-mm-thick insulation could reduce the heat exchange between the pipeline and underlying permafrost and then keep the permafrost and pipe stable. The MAGT and the artificial permafrost table, 4.8 m away from the center line of the pipeline, increased by 0.3°C/a and 0.43 m/a, respectively. Due to the heat disturbance caused by warm oil, the degradation of wetland, controlled burn each autumn and climate warming, the permafrost extent reduced and warmed significantly along the CRCOP route. Field observations provide basic data to clarify the interactions between CRCOP and permafrost degradation and environmental effects in the context of climate change. 展开更多
关键词 PERMAFROST WARMING China-Russia CRUDE Oil Pipeline Air TEMPERATURE Soil TEMPERATURE Climate WARMING
Day length constrains the time budget of aphid predators
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作者 Jens Joschinski Tim Kiess Jochen Krauss 《昆虫科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期164-170,共7页
Phenology shifts and range expansions cause organisms to experience novel day length-temperature correlations.Depending on the temporal niche,organisms may benefit or suffer from changes in day length,thus potentially... Phenology shifts and range expansions cause organisms to experience novel day length-temperature correlations.Depending on the temporal niche,organisms may benefit or suffer from changes in day length,thus potentially affecting phenological adaptation. We assessed the impact of day length changes on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer),both of which prey on aphids.Larvae ofE.balteatus are night-active,whereas those of C.carnea appear to be crepuscular.We subjected both species in climate chambers to day lengths of 16 :8 L :D and,to circumvent diapause responses,20 :4 L :D.We recorded development times and predation rates of both species. E.balteatus grew 13%faster in the 16 :8 L :D treatment and preyed on significantly more aphids.In contrast,C.carnea grew 13% faster in the 20 :4 L :D treatment and higher predation rates in 20 :4 L :D were marginally significant.Our results show that day length affects development and predation,but that the direction depends on species. Such differences in the use of day length may alter the efficiency ofbiocontrol agents in a changing climate. 展开更多
关键词 Chiysoperla carnea CLIMATE change Episyrphus balteatus INSECT TIMING PHENOLOGY PHOTOPERIOD
Recent snow cover variation in the Upper Indus Basin of Gilgit Baltistan, Hindukush Karakoram Himalaya
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作者 Hazrat BILAL CHAMHURI Siwar +1 位作者 MAZLIN Bin Mokhtar KASTURI Devi Kanniah 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第2期296-308,共13页
Mountainous basins like the Upper Indus Basin(UIB) of Gilgit Baltistan(GB) are dependent on seasonal snowmelt and glacier melt. Monitoring of the snow-covered area(SCA) is not only vital for the overall hydrology of t... Mountainous basins like the Upper Indus Basin(UIB) of Gilgit Baltistan(GB) are dependent on seasonal snowmelt and glacier melt. Monitoring of the snow-covered area(SCA) is not only vital for the overall hydrology of the Indus basin but also important to the sustainable agriculture and hydropower system. The snow-covered area in the UIB of GB was investigated for changes over the last 18 years using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) snow product. The study area was divided into five elevation zones ranging from 877-8564 meters above sea level(m ASL). In contrast to the global cryosphere related studies, SCA in the UIB is slightly increasing. Elevation based SCA analysis also indicated that SCA is slightly increasing in each elevation zone. However, a significant amount of snow is concentrated in areas above 5000 m ASL. Due to the strong correlation between SCA and precipitation, the precipitation data also follow a similar trend. Analysis of the climatic data suggests a statistically significant increase in total monthly precipitation and relative humidity, a slight decrease in mean monthly temperature and a significant upward tendency in monthly solar irradiance data. All these trends in combination with the increasing trend in global precipitation, winter westerly disturbances and orographic precipitation are the important factors behind the slightly increasing SCA in the study area. Our results though constrained by short observation period mainly contribute to the understanding of advancing snow cover and glaciers in Hindukush Karakoram. 展开更多
关键词 Snow MODIS WESTERLY disturbances Climate change UPPER Indus BASIN Glaciers
Spike-Grain Structure of Winter Wheat and Its Climate Change Tendency in Jiangsu 预览
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作者 Shang Shun Zhang Xuhui Shang Zhaotang 《气象与环境研究:英文版》 CAS 2019年第1期70-75,80共7页
To scientifically respond to the impact of climate change on winter wheat production, spike-grain structure data of winter wheat at Jiangsu Phenometeorological Observatory were taken as the sample. Based on agrometeor... To scientifically respond to the impact of climate change on winter wheat production, spike-grain structure data of winter wheat at Jiangsu Phenometeorological Observatory were taken as the sample. Based on agrometeorology, statistics and GIS analytical technique, status quo of spike-grain structure of winter wheat in Jiangsu and its climate change tendency were analyzed systemically. The results showed that climate change rate (CTR) of mature spike number (NS) was between -53.37 and 256.51 spikes/(m 2·10 a), and mean of whole province was 21.45 spikes/(m 2·10 a). CTR of number of grains per panicle (GNPS) was between -0.58 and 12.52 grains/(spike·10 a), and mean of whole province was 2.39 grains/(spike·10 a). CTR of thousand-grain weight (TSW) was between -1.65 and 16.39 g/(1 000 grains·10 a), and mean of whole province was 2.86 g/(1 000 grains·10 a). For the means of NS, GNPS, and TSW in whole province, they all showed the increasing trend with climate change, and they were just unbalanced among regions. Climate change induced the variation of meteorological conditions during growth period of winter wheat in Jiangsu. The variation of unity yield (UY) caused by this kind of change trend only accounted for -4.32%-17.23% of that in normal climate years, and mean of whole province was 6.4%. That is to say, comprehensive impact of meteorological condition was favorable for improving the yield of winter wheat with climate change. Therefore, coordination level of winter wheat growth and real-time meteorological conditions could be regulated by breeding the varieties with wide climate suitability, regulating sowing date and density according to local production and management level, rational fertilization and applying growth regulator, to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change on winter wheat production, and reach high yield and quality. 展开更多
关键词 CLIMATE change Spike-grain structure Characteristic analysis
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Two regimes of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation: cross-basin dependent or Atlantic-intrinsic
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作者 Pengfei Lin Zipeng Yu +3 位作者 Jianhua Lü Mengrong Ding Aixue Hu Hailong Liu 《科学通报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第3期198-204,共7页
The Atlantic Multidedal Oscillation(AMO) is a prominent mode of sea surface temperature variability in the Atlantic and incurs significant global influence. Most coupled models failed to reproduce the observed 50–80-... The Atlantic Multidedal Oscillation(AMO) is a prominent mode of sea surface temperature variability in the Atlantic and incurs significant global influence. Most coupled models failed to reproduce the observed 50–80-year AMO, but were overwhelmed by a 10–30-year AMO. Here we show that the 50–80-year AMO and 10–30-year AMO represent two different AMO regimes. The key differences are:(1) the 50–80-year AMO involves transport of warm and saline Atlantic water into the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian(GIN)Seas prior to reaching its maximum positive phase, while such a transport is weak for the 10–30-year AMO;(2) the zonality of atmospheric variability associated with the 50–80 year AMO favors the transport of warm and saline water into the GIN Seas;(3) the disappearance of Pacific variability weakens the zonality of atmospheric variability and the transport of warm and saline water into the GIN Seas, leading to the weakening of the 50–80-year AMO. In contrast, the 10–30-year AMO does not show dependence on the variability in Pacific and in the GIN Seas and may be an Atlantic-intrinsic mode. Our results suggest that differentiating these AMO regimes and a better understanding of the cross-basin connections are essential to reconcile the current debate on the nature of AMO and hence to its reliable prediction, which is still lacking in most of coupled models. 展开更多
关键词 ATLANTIC multidecadal oscillation Cross-basin interaction Internal climate variability AMO regimes
Detecting and attributing vegetation changes in Taihang Mountain, China
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作者 HU Shi WANG Fei-yu +3 位作者 ZHAN Che-sheng ZHAO Ru-xin MO Xiong-guo LIU Liang-mei-zi 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第2期337-350,共14页
Attributing vegetation changes provide fundamental information for ecosystem management,especially in mountainous areas which has vulnerable ecosystems. Based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) data, ... Attributing vegetation changes provide fundamental information for ecosystem management,especially in mountainous areas which has vulnerable ecosystems. Based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) data, the spatial-temporal change of vegetation was detected in Taihang Mountain(THM) from 2000 to 2014. The topographical factors were introduced to interpret the response of vegetation variation to climate change and human activities. Results showed that the avegaged NDVI during growing season showed a single-peak curve distribution, with the largest value(0.628) among 1600-1800 m. A significant greening trend was detected in THM, with the largest increasing rate(0.0078 yr-1) among the elevation of1600-1800 m and slope gradient between 35°. The partial correlation and multiple correlation analyses indicated that vegetation variation in more than81.8% pixels of the THM was mainly impacted by human activities. In the low elevation zones less than1000 m, increasing precipitation is the principle factor promoting vegetation restoration, whereas in the high elevation zones of THM, temperature is the restricted factors impacting vegetation variation.Considering the dramatic climate change in the future,further studies should be conducted to explore inherent mechanism of vegetation growth to dynamic environment changes. 展开更多
关键词 Normalized DIFFERENCE VEGETATION index TOPOGRAPHY FACTORS CLIMATE change Taihang MOUNTAIN
Climate change and finger millet: Perception, trend and impact on yield in different ecological regions in Central Nepal
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作者 Dol Raj LUITEL Mohan SIWAKOTI Pramod Kumar JHA 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期821-835,共15页
The views of local people on climate change along different ecological regions are relatively unexplored in Nepal. This study was conducted in 13 villages in central Nepal at different altitudes to document the views ... The views of local people on climate change along different ecological regions are relatively unexplored in Nepal. This study was conducted in 13 villages in central Nepal at different altitudes to document the views of small holder farmers and compare their perception with trends of climatic variables, finger millet yield, natural disasters, plant phenology(flowering and fruiting), status of forest and wild life, as well as the spread of diseases and pests. Analysis on the climatic data of stations for 36-41 years between 1975 and 2016 showed significant increases in the minimum temperature in lower tropical climatic region(<500 m), upper tropical to subtropical climatic region(500-2000 m) and temperate climatic region(2000-3000 m) by 0.01, 0.026 and 0.054℃/year, respectively, and an increase of maximum temperature by 0.008, 0.018, and 0.019℃/year, respectively. Rainfall showed a strongly significant decreasing trend in all elevation regions. This result matches with the views of respondents except 38% respondent from temperate climatic region. People from the temperate climatic region also mentioned that current onset of snowfall is delayed but amount of snowfall remained the same. From the documented records, except events of wild fire, frequency of natural disasters events have increased in the recent years, which was in harmony with the views of local people. Multi-linear regression analysis showed that contribution of climatic variables on finger millet yield in lower tropical climatic region and upper tropical to subtropical regions was 23% and 57.3%, respectively, which was supported by increasing trend on average growing degree day(GDD) temperature at the rate of 0.01℃ in upper tropical to subtropical region and 0.007℃ in lower tropical climatic region yearly. Finger millet yield has been increasing at the rate of 7.39 and 36.9 kg/ha yearly in lower tropical climatic region and upper tropical to subtropical climatic region, respectively. This result provides deeper understanding of people’s per 展开更多
关键词 Climate change GROWING degree DAYS (GDD) Natural DISASTER PHENOLOGY Precipitation Small holder FARMERS
池州市气候养生适宜性分析 预览
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作者 倪代应 杨春雷 舒安 《安徽农学通报》 2019年第2期125-127,共3页
该文采用池州市1981—2010年30年整编气候资料及负氧离子、空气质量、森林覆盖率、断面水质等生态环境资料,综合运用人居环境气候舒适度[1]、日照等气候条件以及负氧离子、空气质量、森林覆盖率、断面水质等生态环境因子的多要素分析方... 该文采用池州市1981—2010年30年整编气候资料及负氧离子、空气质量、森林覆盖率、断面水质等生态环境资料,综合运用人居环境气候舒适度[1]、日照等气候条件以及负氧离子、空气质量、森林覆盖率、断面水质等生态环境因子的多要素分析方法,从年度、季度、月度的不同时间尺度对池州市不同地理气候区的气候养生适宜性进行了评价分析。 展开更多
关键词 养生 气候 人居环境 气候舒适度 生态环境
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太阳活动对地球气候和天气的影响 预览
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作者 丁一汇 《气象》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期297-304,共8页
本文介绍近年来太阳活动对地球气候和天气影响方面的主要研究成果。包括四个关键的问题:(1)太阳活动与地球系统的能量收支;(2)太阳活动对地球气候的影响(包含气候变化、温室效应、火山);(3)太阳活动对季风和天气的影响与(4)太阳活动的... 本文介绍近年来太阳活动对地球气候和天气影响方面的主要研究成果。包括四个关键的问题:(1)太阳活动与地球系统的能量收支;(2)太阳活动对地球气候的影响(包含气候变化、温室效应、火山);(3)太阳活动对季风和天气的影响与(4)太阳活动的变化会造成地球的长期寒冷气候吗?通过对上述问题的阐述,可以深入认识太阳活动对地球气候和天气影响的事实与机理,以及对未来地球气候可能变化的前景,从而为认识地球气候和天气变化的原因和驱动力提供更全面、更深刻的认识。 展开更多
关键词 太阳活动 季风 气候
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大型山地风电场建设对局地气候影响的数值研究 预览
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作者 杜强 张礼达 余波 《大电机技术》 2019年第2期71-74,共4页
本文利用地图下载器获取风电场地形数据,导入UG软件拟合建立复杂地形几何模型;以Schmitz理论为基础,计算出风力机叶片参数;以三维坐标变换原理为基础,利用UG实现了叶片的三维建模,建立风力机模型。采用基于Reynolds的时均N-S方程和标准k... 本文利用地图下载器获取风电场地形数据,导入UG软件拟合建立复杂地形几何模型;以Schmitz理论为基础,计算出风力机叶片参数;以三维坐标变换原理为基础,利用UG实现了叶片的三维建模,建立风力机模型。采用基于Reynolds的时均N-S方程和标准k-ε湍流模型的数值研究方法,对布置2MW风力机组的山地风电场进行数值计算和分析研究,获得风电场安装不同周期时风速、风压及温度等气候参数。研究结果表明,随着风电场建设的进行,其下游风速及风压减小;温度虽然没有明显变化,但温度分布发生改变。 展开更多
关键词 叶片的三维建模 风力机模型 山地 风电场 数值模拟 气候
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