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FRAMEWORK OF EXTREME FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE TYPHOON COUNTRY REGION
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作者 CHO-RONG KIM 《热带气旋研究与评论(英文版)》 2019年第1期35-45,共11页
Recently, flood damages have increased worldwide due to global warming and climate change. According to the Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), extreme weather events such as heat wave, drou... Recently, flood damages have increased worldwide due to global warming and climate change. According to the Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), extreme weather events such as heat wave, drought, and flood are expected to increase in the future. It is thus necessary to realize that larger and more frequent flood disasters are rapidly nearing us, and need to prepare for them accordingly. This research aims to provide a framework for extreme flood management, beginning with the establishment of extreme flood definition from a more general point of view through reviewing existing literature and references. Also, the purpose of this research is to identify the current status of flood forecasting in the ESCAP/WMP Typhoon Committee’s member countries and to provide recommendations on extreme flood forecasting and flood risk management.in member countries. 展开更多
关键词 EXTREME FLOOD FLOOD DAMAGE EXTREME FLOOD Forecasting System(EFFS) FLOOD risk management
漫谈太原汾河景区的防汛抗洪管理 预览
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作者 李佩璘 《山西建筑》 2019年第14期193-195,共3页
简要分析了汾河太原城区段雨季洪水常发的原因,详细介绍了太原汾河景区建成以来防汛抗洪管理的措施、实践及成效,并从中总结了一些启示和经验,以供参考。
关键词 太原汾河景区 洪水 防汛抗洪
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广西历史洪水相似性查找数据挖掘与应用 预览
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作者 刘文丽 吴立愿 滕培宋 《广西水利水电》 2019年第2期25-28,共4页
利用数据挖掘技术,依据洪水相似性度量指标,在水文数据库中进行历史洪水相似性查找,实现实时洪水过程与历史洪水过程的可视化对比分析,为实时洪水过程演化预测预报提供依据,为提高洪水预报精度和科学的实时洪水调度决策提供支撑。目前... 利用数据挖掘技术,依据洪水相似性度量指标,在水文数据库中进行历史洪水相似性查找,实现实时洪水过程与历史洪水过程的可视化对比分析,为实时洪水过程演化预测预报提供依据,为提高洪水预报精度和科学的实时洪水调度决策提供支撑。目前广西大部分站点为新建的中小河流报汛站,水文资料较少,预警预报方案精度低,通过历史洪水相似性查找数据挖掘应用对从理论上解决水文资料匮乏地区水文规律的探求也具有一定的价值。 展开更多
关键词 洪水 相似性 数据挖掘 洪水预报
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Different Flooding Behaviors Due to Varied Urbanization Levels within River Basin: A Case Study from the Xiang River Basin,China
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作者 Juan Du Linlin Cheng +2 位作者 Qiang Zhang Yumeng Yang Wei Xu 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期89-102,共14页
Booming urbanization due to a fast-growing population results in more impervious areas, less infiltration,and hence greater flood peak and runoff. Clear understanding of flood responses in regions with different level... Booming urbanization due to a fast-growing population results in more impervious areas, less infiltration,and hence greater flood peak and runoff. Clear understanding of flood responses in regions with different levels and expansions of urbanization is of great importance for regional urban planning. In this study, comparison of flooding responses to urbanization processes in terms of flood peak and runoff volume in the upper, middle,and lower Xiang River Basin(XRB), China, was carried out using the Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System(HEC-HMS) model. From 2005 to 2015, urbanization level and intensity were higher in the lower XRB compared to the upper and middle XRB, and the overall expansion rate of urban areas was 112.8%.Modeling results by the HEC-HMS model indicate elevated flood peak discharges and volumes due to fast urbanization in the XRB from the 1980 s to 2015. This rapid increase is particularly the case in the lower XRB. The study also revealed different hydrological responses of flood regimes—urbanization tends to have larger impacts on peak flood flow rather than on flood volume in the lowerXRB, which further corroborated urbanization-induced intensifying flood processes in terms of peak flood flow.Urbanization has increasing impacts on flood volume from the upper to the lower XRB, which can be attributed to accumulated runoff down the river system. This study provides a reference for basin-wide land use and urban planning as well as flood hazard mitigation. 展开更多
关键词 FLOOD volume FLOODING processes HECHMS PEAK FLOOD flow URBANIZATION level Xiang River Basin China
Sensitivity evaluation of the flash flood warning system introduced to ungauged small mountainous basins in Korea
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作者 YOO Chulsang LEE Jinwook +1 位作者 CHANG Kwonhee YANG Dongmin 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第5期971-993,共23页
This study evaluates the uncertainty involved in the determination of the flash flood guidance(FFG) of the flash flood warning system(FFWS) for a small mountainous region(FFWS_MR)in Korea. The sensitivity is evaluated... This study evaluates the uncertainty involved in the determination of the flash flood guidance(FFG) of the flash flood warning system(FFWS) for a small mountainous region(FFWS_MR)in Korea. The sensitivity is evaluated both at each step to determine the FFG and for all steps together. The results show that the relative difference of the FFG is about 50% of the current system, most of which involves the channel width. Especially, the use of some specific empirical equations to estimate the major parameters results in a considerable amount of the relative difference of the FFG. In addition, though only four basins were field-surveyed, it is found that the indirect estimation of the major parameters always introduces some amount of additional uncertainty. In conclusion, accurate estimation of the major parameters must be the most important procedure to derive an accurate FFG, among which the channel cross-section at the exit of the basin lies at the center. 展开更多
关键词 FLASH FLOOD WARNING system FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE Sensitivity analysis
Performance assessment of two-dimensional hydraulic models for generation of flood inundation maps in mountain river basins 预览
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作者 Juan Pinos Luis Timbe 《水科学与水工程:英文版》 EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期11-18,共8页
Hydraulic models for the generation of flood inundation maps are not commonly applied in mountain river basins because of the difficulty in modeling the hydraulic behavior and the complex topography. This paper presen... Hydraulic models for the generation of flood inundation maps are not commonly applied in mountain river basins because of the difficulty in modeling the hydraulic behavior and the complex topography. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of four twodimensional hydraulic models (HEC-RAS 2D, Iber 2D, Flood Modeller 2D, and PCSWMM 2D) with respect to the generation of flood inundation maps. The study area covers a 5-km reach of the Santa B-arbara River located in the Ecuadorian Andes, at 2330 masl, in Gualaceo. The model's performance was evaluated based on the water surface elevation and flood extent, in terms of the mean absolute difference and measure of fit. The analysis revealed that, for a given case, Iber 2D has the best performance in simulating the water level and inundation for flood events with 20- and 50-year return periods, respectively, followed by Flood Modeller 2D, HEC-RAS 2D, and PCSWMM 2D in terms of their performance. Grid resolution, the way in which hydraulic structures are mimicked, the model code, and the default value of the parameters are considered the main sources of prediction uncertainty. 展开更多
关键词 TWO-DIMENSIONAL hydraulic models FLOOD modeling FLOOD extent Water surface ELEVATION High MOUNTAIN RIVER Ecuador
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SCENARIO-BASED URBAN FLOOD FORECAST WITH FLOOD INUNDATION MAP
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作者 JINHOON KIM HYOSEOB CHO 《热带气旋研究与评论(英文版)》 2019年第1期27-34,共8页
The objective of this study is to introduce how to apply the urban flood forecast with numerous flood inundation map scenario in Korea. In modeling of urban flood, drainage networks 1D model like SWMM(Storm Water Mana... The objective of this study is to introduce how to apply the urban flood forecast with numerous flood inundation map scenario in Korea. In modeling of urban flood, drainage networks 1D model like SWMM(Storm Water Management Model) used to analysis stormwater runoff within drainage pipe system and 2D surface model used to simulate inundation area and depth. This 1D-2D model(drainage network 1D coupled to 2D surface model) is used to make the inundation map of urban flood. The accuracy of the 2D model is highly dependent of the input data resolution. The cell by cell running on these high surface resolution need to be required more computation time. Thus, the 1D-2D models have some limitations in using operational real-time forecast. In this sense, the scenario-based approach can be a good alternative method to forecast urban flood. The flood inundation maps would be completed with 320 rainfall scenarios which are finely divided according to rainfall intensity and duration on the basis of design rainfall. The forecast process is very simple if we use pre-existing scenarios. We use a predicted radar rainfall as input for simulated scenario selection, and then selected inundation map would be serviced to people. In this study, the current results for the scenario-based urban flood forecast with flood inundation map are demonstrated. 展开更多
关键词 urban FLOOD FORECAST FLOOD inundation MAP scenario-based radar rainfall estimation
ESTABLISHMENT OF ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR STRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES
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作者 CHO-RONG KIM 《热带气旋研究与评论(英文版)》 2019年第1期46-52,共7页
Due to abnormal weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risk of flood has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and ... Due to abnormal weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risk of flood has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures(ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module.First, the D/B for flood damage estimation was constructed, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and topographic and hydrological data in the target area were applied. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics(big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application(population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage(only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index(B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures to reduce water-related damage and decision-makers can choose the proper flood control measures in the socioeconomic aspects. 展开更多
关键词 ASFCM SOCIO-ECONOMIC assessment FLOOD DAMAGE STRUCTURAL FLOOD control HEC-RAS
英国洪水管理对我国土地生态保护的启示
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作者 孙增慧 李娟 孙瑞宁 《西部大开发:土地开发工程研究》 2019年第6期53-57,共5页
洪水灾害是人类社会面临的最为严重的自然灾害之一。目前,世界各国在积极研究洪水灾害管理、深化转移治水战略、完善减灾体系、普及防灾意识、防灾减灾领域的新技术应用与推广。英国政府在洪水风险管理与防洪规划等方面进行了探索与实践... 洪水灾害是人类社会面临的最为严重的自然灾害之一。目前,世界各国在积极研究洪水灾害管理、深化转移治水战略、完善减灾体系、普及防灾意识、防灾减灾领域的新技术应用与推广。英国政府在洪水风险管理与防洪规划等方面进行了探索与实践,并取得了令人瞩目的成绩。本文通过分析英国在洪水开发、利用、管理中存在的主要问题,明确了英国洪水管理首先是观念转变,由控制洪水向洪水管理转变,实现人与水和谐相处,明晰了建立流域管理机构,给洪水以出路,洪水资源化,改善和加强生态系统的保护、建设,重视非工程措施和提高水资源的承载能力在洪水管理中的重要性。探讨了我国防洪减灾以及土地生态保护所面对的问题,提出了对减轻洪水灾害的科学体系方面研究与风险管理体制方面的建设应该是今后工作的重点,以期为提升我国洪水管理水平提供参照与经验借鉴。同时,明晰了在洪水管理视角下,重视城市土地生态保护,既可保证城市化进程中的生态环境安全,又对城市建设项目中雨水径流的集蓄利用起到促进作用的重要意义。 展开更多
关键词 英国 洪水 管理 风险
Numerical analysis and evaluation of groundwater recession in a flood detention basin 预览
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作者 XU Jun-xiang WANG Shao-juan +1 位作者 LI Chang-suo XING Li-ting 《地下水科学与工程:英文版》 2019年第3期253-263,共11页
This study analyzes the groundwater environment in the Yangzhuang flood detention basin in Henan Province,China.A numerical model of groundwater flow is established based on the hydrogeological conditions in the basin... This study analyzes the groundwater environment in the Yangzhuang flood detention basin in Henan Province,China.A numerical model of groundwater flow is established based on the hydrogeological conditions in the basin and changes of groundwater level in the flood detention basin under flood detention and recession conditions.The results show that during flood diversion and storage,the groundwater level in the basin rises,mainly in four flood detention zones,with a maximum rise of 1.0 m.After the floodwater recedes,the groundwater level slowly drops in the detention basin along with flood discharge,finally returning to its original level fifty days later.This study indicates that groundwater recession in the flood detention basin is a slow process,where the rise of groundwater level may cause environmental problems such as soil swamping. 展开更多
关键词 FLOOD DETENTION BASIN NUMERICAL method GROUNDWATER level RECESSION analysis
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基于亚像元分析技术的洞庭湖区洪水淹没提取 预览
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作者 张娜 王萍 原晓慧 《北京测绘》 2019年第6期719-723,共5页
遥感成像技术具有成本低、效率高、时效性好等特点,被广泛应用于洪涝灾害监测工作。但受空间分辨率的限制,遥感影像中普遍存在混合像元现象。传统的硬分类方法无法精细化的提取地物信息。本文利用MOD09A1数据,将亚像元分析技术应用于洞... 遥感成像技术具有成本低、效率高、时效性好等特点,被广泛应用于洪涝灾害监测工作。但受空间分辨率的限制,遥感影像中普遍存在混合像元现象。传统的硬分类方法无法精细化的提取地物信息。本文利用MOD09A1数据,将亚像元分析技术应用于洞庭湖区洪水淹没范围提取,提取结果与MNDWI阈值法进行了比较。实验结果表明亚像元分析技术,总体精度高达88.27%,Kappa系数达到0.67,优于MNDWI阈值法,能够实现洪水的精细化提取。 展开更多
关键词 中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS) 洞庭湖 亚像元分析 洪水
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洪水污染的生态环境影响评估体系构建与研究 预览
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作者 俞茜 李娜 +3 位作者 王艳艳 丁留谦 杜晓鹤 王静 《中国水利水电科学研究院学报》 北大核心 2019年第4期293-298,共6页
洪水是全世界范围内最严重的自然灾害之一,不仅会造成严重的经济社会损失,而且流经污染源的洪水可 能对当地的生态环境造成负面影响,然而目前针对洪水的生态环境影响评估方法的研究较为缺乏。本文构建了一 套可以半定量地评估洪水污染... 洪水是全世界范围内最严重的自然灾害之一,不仅会造成严重的经济社会损失,而且流经污染源的洪水可 能对当地的生态环境造成负面影响,然而目前针对洪水的生态环境影响评估方法的研究较为缺乏。本文构建了一 套可以半定量地评估洪水污染的生态环境影响的评估体系,该评估体系主要包括四部分:(1)识 别与筛选洪水可 能造成的生态环境后果类型,(2)确 定洪水淹没范围内潜在污染源的危害程度等级,(3)确 定洪水淹没范围内的受 体敏感度等级,(4)综 合污染源危害程度和受体敏感度两个指标,确定生态环境影响严重性程度。将构建的评估 体系应用于南水北调中线一期工程某高填方渠段,分析了12个溃堤洪水方案对当地的生态环境影响的严重性程 度,研究结果表明12个洪水方案对当地的生态环境的影响均较小,该评估体系可以较好地分析对比不同洪水方 案造成的生态环境影响严重性程度。 展开更多
关键词 洪水 生态环境影响 污染源 受保护对象
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基于Sentinel-1B SAR数据的洪水提取和监测 预览
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作者 吴文会 王丽欣 马卓 《测绘与空间地理信息》 2019年第4期110-111,118共3页
洪涝灾害是我国最严重的气象灾害之一,及时准确的洪灾监测是防灾减灾的重要前期工作和基础。本文利用sentinel-1B雷达数据,以黑瞎子岛为研究区,联合使用OSTU阈值分割法和随机森林面向对象分类法针对像素统计单波形、双波形、多波形SAR... 洪涝灾害是我国最严重的气象灾害之一,及时准确的洪灾监测是防灾减灾的重要前期工作和基础。本文利用sentinel-1B雷达数据,以黑瞎子岛为研究区,联合使用OSTU阈值分割法和随机森林面向对象分类法针对像素统计单波形、双波形、多波形SAR影像提取洪水要素,实现对洪灾淹没面积的时序监测,为灾情监测提供数据和技术支撑。 展开更多
关键词 Sentinel-1B SAR 洪水 OSTU阈值分割 随机森林分类
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雅砻江流域非一致性洪水分析 预览
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作者 梁小青 纪昌明 +2 位作者 张验科 俞洪杰 阎晓冉 《水力发电》 北大核心 2019年第7期11-17,共7页
雅砻江干流下游河段大规模梯级水电站的逐步开发改变了下垫面条件,同时也改变了天然洪水的分布特性,不再满足传统洪水频率分析中对其一致性的要求。通过定性和定量分析,得出雅砻江锦屏一级水电站年最大1日洪量和年最大3日洪量均在1989... 雅砻江干流下游河段大规模梯级水电站的逐步开发改变了下垫面条件,同时也改变了天然洪水的分布特性,不再满足传统洪水频率分析中对其一致性的要求。通过定性和定量分析,得出雅砻江锦屏一级水电站年最大1日洪量和年最大3日洪量均在1989年发生变异。在此基础上,针对年最大1日洪量及其发生日期两个变量进行了研究。首先以变异年份1989年将原序列划分为两个子序列,并构造了P-Ⅲ混合分布模型;其次应用方向数据统计理论,将Von Mises分布作为其发生日期的分布;最后通过Clayton Copula函数求取了两变量的联合超越概率分布、条件超越概率密度等。分析结果可为该电站合理确定设计洪水及汛期防洪调度提供相关参考。 展开更多
关键词 洪水 非一致性 混合分布 Von Mises分布 雅砻江流域
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不同季节人工湿地处理污水效果 预览
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作者 华昇 陈浩 +2 位作者 刘云国 田思溶 华权 《安徽农业科学》 CAS 2019年第19期68-72,共5页
人工湿地是目前最自然、生态的处理废水技术。利用人工湿地植物、基质和微生物构成的生态系统,处理废水中COD、总氮、总磷和氨氮,实现水质净化。通过连续一年野外试验发现,不同时期对废水中污染物的去除效果有较大差别,春夏季对污染物... 人工湿地是目前最自然、生态的处理废水技术。利用人工湿地植物、基质和微生物构成的生态系统,处理废水中COD、总氮、总磷和氨氮,实现水质净化。通过连续一年野外试验发现,不同时期对废水中污染物的去除效果有较大差别,春夏季对污染物的去除效果好于秋冬季,对不同污染物去除率也存在差异,人工湿地的平均去除率呈现出总磷>总氮>氨氮>COD。此外,美人蕉、菖蒲、铜钱草的耐淹性强,长达35d,在半淹状态下90d,植物形态上与未淹时无明显的差别,生长良好。该人工湿地造价和运行成本低,单位水量投资成本约为0.20元/(t·d),此人工湿地基本达到了净化水质、节约能源的目的。 展开更多
关键词 人工湿地 废水处理 季节 淹没
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洪水作用下尾矿坝渗流及稳定性分析 预览
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作者 许誉浩 《低温建筑技术》 2019年第6期90-92,105共4页
尾矿坝是企业生产和区域环境的重大危险源,一旦失事会造成巨大经济损失及人员伤亡。其中洪水引起的尾矿坝溃坝至少占50%,所以保证洪水状态下尾矿坝的正常运行对尾矿坝安全具有重要的实际意义。文中采用数值模拟方法建立尾矿坝模型,研究... 尾矿坝是企业生产和区域环境的重大危险源,一旦失事会造成巨大经济损失及人员伤亡。其中洪水引起的尾矿坝溃坝至少占50%,所以保证洪水状态下尾矿坝的正常运行对尾矿坝安全具有重要的实际意义。文中采用数值模拟方法建立尾矿坝模型,研究不同洪水条件下尾矿坝的安全系数。得出坝体水位高度和干滩长度会影响稳定性的结论,并给出了监测措施,为其他尾矿坝防洪提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 尾矿坝 洪水 稳定性分析
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2018年阿速坡省洪涝灾害中腹泻疾病的调查分析
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作者 吴凡 李志强 +5 位作者 谭俊杰 叶丽娟 蒋凯 崔琳 郑伟 谭映军 《军事医学》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第2期150-154,共5页
目的分析"2018-中老和平列车"在老挝阿速坡省溃坝洪涝灾害医学救援中收集患者疾病发生的特点,为热带、亚热带气候雨季洪涝灾害的异国救援及疾病防治提供依据及经验。方法根据伤病员的病因、临床症状、既往病史等进行诊断,采... 目的分析"2018-中老和平列车"在老挝阿速坡省溃坝洪涝灾害医学救援中收集患者疾病发生的特点,为热带、亚热带气候雨季洪涝灾害的异国救援及疾病防治提供依据及经验。方法根据伤病员的病因、临床症状、既往病史等进行诊断,采取国际疾病分类法(ICD-10)收集整理资料,采用描述性分析方法对洪涝灾害后人数最多的腹泻病员的年龄分布、高发时间及发热时间进行回顾性分析。结果共收集1000例完整病例资料,其中腹泻病例高达169例,男性45.56%(77/169),女性54.44%(92/169),男女比例为0.84∶1;年龄跨度0~87岁,平均(58.3±19.6)岁,其中4~6岁构成比较高,为21.30%,>66岁老年人构成比高达27.81%。洪涝灾害后腹泻病员量在第3~5天上升较快,高峰出现在第5天,第9~10天为稳定期;发热人数的升高或降低与腹泻人数整体一致,并低于不发热者,第6天发热人数达高峰,第7~8天明显下降。结论腹泻疾病在洪涝灾害后极易出现暴发流行,伴发热的腹泻更是多种传染性疾病的暴发点,因此,腹泻病员的早期监测、预防和治疗能有效降低相关疾病的暴发风险。 展开更多
关键词 灾害医学 和平 救援 洪涝 腹泻 发热
巴丹吉林沙漠南缘地下水补给机制研究 预览
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作者 魏世博 聂振龙 +4 位作者 申建梅 崔亚莉 王哲 孟令群 刘学全 《人民黄河》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第2期88-93,共6页
为研究巴丹吉林沙漠南缘水源地的地下水补给机制,分析了采自浅井、深井及湖泊的35个水样的Cl-浓度、TDS含量和氢氧同位素特征。根据巴丹吉林水源地及周边水化学水平分布特征,结合研究区气象和水文条件、水文地质结构、地下水流场发现,... 为研究巴丹吉林沙漠南缘水源地的地下水补给机制,分析了采自浅井、深井及湖泊的35个水样的Cl-浓度、TDS含量和氢氧同位素特征。根据巴丹吉林水源地及周边水化学水平分布特征,结合研究区气象和水文条件、水文地质结构、地下水流场发现,戈壁区地下水对沙漠区地下水无明显补给作用,但是沙漠区、戈壁区及山区地下水稳定同位素关系表明,沙漠区地下水来源于南部山区及戈壁区的地下水或降水。通过野外调查发现,沙漠边缘分布大量洪积黏土,认为沙漠外围山区、山前戈壁带降水在季节性河道形成的脉冲式洪流是沙漠区地下水的重要补给来源之一,这一认识不仅解释了采用水化学和同位素技术进行分析而获得不同结论的原因,而且有利于地下水资源评价. 展开更多
关键词 地下水 补给机制 水化学 稳定同位素 洪水 巴丹吉林沙漠
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清代汾河流域洪涝灾害发展与土壤侵蚀之关系 预览
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作者 任世芳 《水资源研究》 2019年第3期274-279,共6页
在对地方史志及清宫档案中相关史料进行统计整理和量化分析的基础上,应用滑动平均和斯波曼秩次相关检验两种趋势分析方法,对清代汾河流域洪涝灾害的发展趋势进行研究,结果显示268年间洪涝灾害的严重程度呈增长趋势;通过对同期人口、耕... 在对地方史志及清宫档案中相关史料进行统计整理和量化分析的基础上,应用滑动平均和斯波曼秩次相关检验两种趋势分析方法,对清代汾河流域洪涝灾害的发展趋势进行研究,结果显示268年间洪涝灾害的严重程度呈增长趋势;通过对同期人口、耕地数量等社会因素变化情况的分析,探寻了洪涝灾害数量增长的原因。结论认为:清代人口的迅速增加导致建筑用材和燃料的需求大增,伴随而来的开垦荒地和砍伐山林植被等人类活动使该区土壤侵蚀量增加,从而导致河槽泥沙淤积、河道行洪能力降低等情况的发生,这些情况均使河流泛滥和破堤的风险增加,并最终导致流域水患数量不断增长。 展开更多
关键词 清代 汾河流域 洪涝灾害 土壤侵蚀
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Estimation of peak runoff and frequency in an ungauged stream of a forested watershed for flood hazard mapping 预览
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作者 Refik Karagul Tarik Citgez 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期555-564,共10页
frequencies.The aim of this research was to determine the measures needed to protect the towns and villages from this type of damage.Daily total precipitation data for 1975–2010 were analysed,and rainfall-runoff mode... frequencies.The aim of this research was to determine the measures needed to protect the towns and villages from this type of damage.Daily total precipitation data for 1975–2010 were analysed,and rainfall-runoff models developed to estimate the potential yearly maximum discharge from each stream of sub-watersheds dominated by forests and/or agriculture.This was then calculated for different frequencies of the yearly maximum discharge.Flood analysis and mapping was modified via the one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Centers-River Analysis System software to produce potential maximum discharge and geometric data for Kaynasli Creek.As the main creek of the sub-watershed,its crosssection was shown to be insufficient and incapable of containing the maximum discharge at the 100-year frequency presumed for the watershed,and subsequently was seen as having a high level of casualty risk.It was concluded that the one dimensional model could be useful,but 2D models were more suitable for these types of watersheds. 展开更多
关键词 Flood FREQUENCY ANALYSIS FLOODPLAIN MAPPING Flow simulation Hydrologic Engineering Centers-River ANALYSIS System(HEC-RAS) Soil Conservation Service Curve Number(SCS-CN)
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