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刘咸时期《科学》杂志的传播内容和特点 认领
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作者 王伟 王幼军 《今日科苑》 2020年第2期39-46,共8页
《科学》杂志记载中国近代学人运用科学精神和方法解决中国社会问题的建议和主张,今天看来仍然具有一定的启示意义。刘咸作为《科学》杂志的首个专职主编,在传播理念、内容编排、组稿发刊环节,向专业化和职业化方向进行了很多有益的探... 《科学》杂志记载中国近代学人运用科学精神和方法解决中国社会问题的建议和主张,今天看来仍然具有一定的启示意义。刘咸作为《科学》杂志的首个专职主编,在传播理念、内容编排、组稿发刊环节,向专业化和职业化方向进行了很多有益的探索。本文运用科学社会学视角,采用文献分析方法,对刘咸时期《科学》的栏目设置、编排特点和发刊内容进行全面的研究分析,力图展现这一时期杂志的整体传播情况。 展开更多
关键词 刘咸 《科学》杂志 科学传播 科学社会学
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Harmonizing models and observations: Data assimilation in Earth system science 认领
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作者 Xin LI Feng LIU Miao FANG 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2020年第8期1059-1068,共10页
Models and observations are two fundamental methodological approaches in Earth system science(ESS). They evolve collaboratively and enhance one another. However, neither of these two approaches is perfect, and they ha... Models and observations are two fundamental methodological approaches in Earth system science(ESS). They evolve collaboratively and enhance one another. However, neither of these two approaches is perfect, and they have incompatibilities due to their methodological differences. The emergence of data assimilation(DA) has enabled these two approaches to develop in conjunction and form a harmonic ESS methodology. As a result, DA has shown a fresh vitality and applicability in ESS. This paper reviews the application of DA in the main branches of ESS, traces the coordinated evolution of DA with the methodologies of rationalism and empiricism, analyzes the relationships of DA with estimation theory and cybernetics, summarizes the advances of DA in China, and presents an outlook on the challenges facing the development of a uniform DA for ESS. DA theories and methods will continue to evolve and provide an increasingly mature methodology for enhancing the understanding and prediction of Earth as a system. 展开更多
关键词 Data assimilation Model OBSERVATION Earth system science METHODOLOGY Philosophy of science SYNTHESIS
On the Compilation Modes of Local History of Science and Technology--A Case Study of the History of Ba-Shu Science and Technology 认领
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作者 Zha Youliang 《当代社会科学(英文)》 2020年第1期40-53,共14页
The contents of"Ba-Shu History of Science and Technology"take up a single volume of A General History of Ba-Shu Culture.This paper attempts to explore compilation modes of the history of local science and te... The contents of"Ba-Shu History of Science and Technology"take up a single volume of A General History of Ba-Shu Culture.This paper attempts to explore compilation modes of the history of local science and technology by analyzing the compilation of"Shu History of Science and Technology".There are three approaches available,i.e.a general history-based approach,a discipline-based approach and an integrated approach,also known as a discipline-specific approach based on general history.This paper considers the integrated approach to be the most feasible as it elaborates Ba-Shu culture as a sub-culture of Chinese culture,the connotations of Ba-Shu achievements in science and technology,the special significance of the history of Ba-Shu science and technology,as well as the latest progress in studying the history of Ba-Shu science and technology.This paper also puts forward a possible choice to better approach the compilation of the history of local science and technology,reveals areas worth improving,and indicates a proper direction to move towards. 展开更多
关键词 HISTORY of LOCAL SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY HISTORY of Ba-Shu SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY COMPILATION mode
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Contributions and Misunderstandings:Zheng Wenguang and"Science Fiction Realism" 认领
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作者 JIANG Zhenyu 《中国文学研究前沿:英文版》 2020年第2期202-227,共26页
Zheng Wenguang described the concept of"science fiction realism"in 1981 as a form of misreading,aiming at exploring social problems.Personally,he was rethinking and developing a series of his own writing ide... Zheng Wenguang described the concept of"science fiction realism"in 1981 as a form of misreading,aiming at exploring social problems.Personally,he was rethinking and developing a series of his own writing ideas since the 195os.As for the science fiction community,it was a powerful challenge to the idea that"science fiction is a part of popular science,"which had existed for almost five decades.As soon as Zheng's idea was put forward,it quickly received a warm response from Jin Tao and Wei Yahua,etc.The works,such as"The Moonlight Island"(Yueguangdao)and"Destiny Nightclub"(Mingyun yezonghui),broke down the narrow boundaries of contemporary popular science discourse."Science fiction realism"should be understood to mean"realistic science fiction."However,from a theoretical perspective,all kinds of writings in this period not only narrowed and vulgarized the understanding of"realism,"especially as they ignored heated discussions of this concept,but also blurred the core and boundary of the"science fiction"genre and even dissolved its autonomy to a certain extent.Zheng and his proponents'explorations are Chinese science fiction authors'beneficial attempts to construct local traditions.They reflect a profound anxiety towards reality and a strong desire for self-identification among a generation of science fiction authors.The core point they observe reappears in various guises across the development of the science fiction genre in the following decades.The basic conceptions they are trying to convey have also become important resources for the development of Chinese science fiction literary theory. 展开更多
关键词 Zheng Wenguang science fiction realism REALITY SCIENCE FANTASY
Hearing(Technological)Anomalies:An Analysis of Han Song's"The Rebirth Bricks" 认领
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作者 Chiara Cigarini 《中国文学研究前沿:英文版》 2020年第2期228-253,共26页
Contemporary Chinese science fiction author and journalist Han Song's works often cross the lines dividing reality from imagination,science fiction from literary mainstream,technology from the supernatural.This ar... Contemporary Chinese science fiction author and journalist Han Song's works often cross the lines dividing reality from imagination,science fiction from literary mainstream,technology from the supernatural.This article,focusing in particular on Han's novella"The Rebirth Bricks"(Zaisheng zhuan),aims to investigate the role played by the senses in a shift from the science fictional novum to the fictional"uncanny."Featuring technological bricks,haunted by sounds of the dead which are perceived through sight and hearing,this novella is analyzed from the standpoint of this perceptual complementarity which expresses Han Song's"science fictional re-enchantment,"a re-use of supernatural themes of the past that allow him to express the(technological)anomalies of China's current reality. 展开更多
关键词 Chinese science fiction Han Song science fictional re-enchantment zhiguai SENSORY
物理教学中贯彻“课程思政”——在大学物理教学中体现对科学精神的培养 认领
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作者 王秀杰 李红 葛向红 《科教导刊》 2020年第14期116-117,共2页
科学是人类创造的发明的方法,而科学精神是科学在其发展过程中所形成的行为规范、价值取向、思维方式的集中体现,当代大学生科学精神严重匮乏,在大学物理教学中,可以通过充分发掘物理学科理性资源、完善教学环节、改变教育理念、营造宽... 科学是人类创造的发明的方法,而科学精神是科学在其发展过程中所形成的行为规范、价值取向、思维方式的集中体现,当代大学生科学精神严重匮乏,在大学物理教学中,可以通过充分发掘物理学科理性资源、完善教学环节、改变教育理念、营造宽松的教学环境,加强科学精神的培养。 展开更多
关键词 科学 科学精神 大学物理教学 培养科学精神
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Science Missions Using CubeSats 认领
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作者 SEYEDABADI M E FALANGA M +21 位作者 AZAM M BARESI N FLÉRON R JANTARACHOTE V JUAREZ ORTIZ V A JULCA YAYA J J LANGER M MANUTHASNA S MARTINOD N MUGHAL M R NOMAN M PARK J PIMNOO A PRAKS J REYNERI L SANNA A ŞIŞMAN TÇ SOME J ULAMBAYAR T YU Xiaozhou DONG Xiaolong BALDIS L 《空间科学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第4期443-461,共19页
As the role of missions and experiments carried out in outer space becomes more and more essential in our understanding of many earthly problems,such as resource management,environmental problems,and disaster manageme... As the role of missions and experiments carried out in outer space becomes more and more essential in our understanding of many earthly problems,such as resource management,environmental problems,and disaster management,as well as space science questions,thanks to their lower cost and faster development process CubeSats can benefit humanity and therefore,young scientists and engineers have been motivated to research and develop new CubeSat missions.Not very long after their inception,CubeSats have evolved to become accepted platforms for scientific and commercial applications.The last couple of years showed that they are a feasible tool for conducting scientific experiments,not only in the Earth orbit but also in the interplanetary space.For many countries,a CubeSat mission could prompt the community and young teams around the world to build the national capacity to launch and operate national space missions.This paper presents an overview of the key scientific and engineering gateways opened up to the younger scientific community by the advent and adaptation of new technology into CubeSat missions.The role of cooperation and the opportunities for capacity-building and education are also explored.Thus,the present article also aims to provide useful recommendations to scientists,early-career researchers,engineers,students,and anyone who intends to explore the potential and opportunities offered by CubeSats and CubeSats-based missions. 展开更多
关键词 CUBESAT SPACE SCIENCE Small SATELLITES for SPACE SCIENCE Education Earth OBSERVATION
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文章速递基于Web of Science的环境领域中海洋溢油污染事故相关研究热点计量学分析 认领
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作者 吴健 王敏 +4 位作者 叶春梅 徐志豪 沙晨燕 张佳怡 黄沈发 《法医学杂志》 CAS CSCD 2020年第4期461-469,共9页
目的对Web of Science引文数据库收录的1982—2018年发表的环境领域的相关文献进行计量学分析,深入了解环境领域中的前沿研究动态及热点。方法以“oil spill*”为主题词进行检索,使用VOSviewer软件构建溢油(oil spill)的研究热点主题知... 目的对Web of Science引文数据库收录的1982—2018年发表的环境领域的相关文献进行计量学分析,深入了解环境领域中的前沿研究动态及热点。方法以“oil spill*”为主题词进行检索,使用VOSviewer软件构建溢油(oil spill)的研究热点主题知识图谱,探究其相互之间的聚类关系。利用Thomson Data Analyzer(TDA)软件通过构建关键词矩阵,得到相应文献中关键词的出现频次与关联度。结果海洋溢油污染的四个主要研究热点为溢油数值模拟及模型预测,溢油暴露毒性及风险评估,溢油组分及源解析,溢油污染特性及处理处置。结论分析四大研究热点的重点内容及研究进展,为进一步理解海洋溢油发生、迁移、转化机制,实施溢油治理修复,以及更精确地开展生态环境损害评估提供了科学基础。 展开更多
关键词 法医学 司法鉴定 文献计量学 环境损害 海洋污染 溢油 Web of Science
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文章速递摩擦纳米发电机研究可视化图谱分析 认领
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作者 汪朋飞 杨平 《科学技术与工程》 北大核心 2020年第24期9716-9723,共8页
全球范围内能源与环境问题日益严峻,自2012年摩擦纳米发电机(triboelectric nanogenerator)的概念被提出以来,作为一种清洁可再生的微纳新能源产生装置,成为众多研究人员关注的焦点。基于CiteSpace可视化分析软件,针对Web of Science数... 全球范围内能源与环境问题日益严峻,自2012年摩擦纳米发电机(triboelectric nanogenerator)的概念被提出以来,作为一种清洁可再生的微纳新能源产生装置,成为众多研究人员关注的焦点。基于CiteSpace可视化分析软件,针对Web of Science数据库中检索到的1908篇摩擦纳米发电机研究领域论文从出版年、引用次数、发文期刊、机构、作者和关键词等角度进行图谱分析,总结摩擦纳米发电机领域中外研究进展和热点并预测前沿趋势,为深入了解摩擦纳米发电机领域的研究现状提供借鉴和参考。 展开更多
关键词 摩擦纳米发电机 CiteSpace 可视化图谱分析 Web of Science
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文章速递Science Writer:一款基于网络技术的互动式研究报告撰写工具——以卡通代理人黄狗“Max”的研究报告撰写为例 认领
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作者 康健秋 禹娜 《现代教育技术》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第9期95-102,共8页
研究报告的撰写能力是中小学生各学科和综合实践活动学习的必备能力,但目前我国在中小学生研究报告撰写能力的培养方面还存在许多问题。为此,文章引入了一款在美国较为成熟的基于网络技术的互动式研究报告撰写工具——Science Writer。... 研究报告的撰写能力是中小学生各学科和综合实践活动学习的必备能力,但目前我国在中小学生研究报告撰写能力的培养方面还存在许多问题。为此,文章引入了一款在美国较为成熟的基于网络技术的互动式研究报告撰写工具——Science Writer。文章首先介绍了Science Writer工具的结构组成及其在研究报告初稿、修改和校对三个环节撰写时的应用;随后以卡通代理人黄狗“Max”的研究报告撰写为例,分析了此工具的具体应用过程;最后梳理了此工具的应用特点和存在的问题,以期为我国中小学生研究报告撰写工具的开发提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 研究报告 Science Writer 研究问题 报告内容 网络技术
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Bibliometric evaluation of the status of Picea research and research hotspots:comparison of China to other countries 认领
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作者 Guozhen Duan Yu'e Bai +4 位作者 Dongmei Ye Tao Lin Peng Peng Min Liu Shulan Bai 《林业研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期1103-1114,共12页
Picea Mill.species are important components of boreal and subalpine forests.They have a wide geographical range in the Northern Hemisphere,extending from the Eurasian continent to North America.In this study,publicati... Picea Mill.species are important components of boreal and subalpine forests.They have a wide geographical range in the Northern Hemisphere,extending from the Eurasian continent to North America.In this study,publications on Picea species from 2002 to 2016 were identified via the Web of Science(WoS)and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)databases,and subjected to relationship network visualization using CiteSpace software.This study represents the first such analysis of Picea and provides a reference for bibliometrics in forest tree species research.The results show that the total number of publications on Picea archived in WoS was20,958 and that the number of papers published annually has increased over time,peaking at 1725 in 2013.The studies were mainly conducted in North America,Europe and Asia;among them,Canada published the most papers and showed the strongest betweenness centrality(0.11).Among research institutions,the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala had the highest publication record.The research contributions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Chinese Academy of Forestry,and Beijing Forestry University have improved rapidly in recent years,greatly enhancing the international impact of Chinese research in this field.The research contents were grouped into five categories:forest ecosystems,pest resistance,extraction and functional analyses of active ingredients from various plant organs,nursery and afforestation techniques,and timber quality research.In China,the number of papers from the CNKI database was4532,increasing at an even pace.The research topics on Picea included forest ecosystems,seedling and afforestation techniques,basic studies on individual species and populations,and pests and diseases.Within and outside China,hotspots in Picea research included the relationships between Picea and environmental factors,and the genomic sequences of Picea. 展开更多
关键词 PICEA BIBLIOMETRICS HOTSPOTS Web of science Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure
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科学儿童保健对幼儿健康发育成长的影响 认领
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作者 孙胜玉 《中国卫生标准管理》 2020年第8期16-18,共3页
目的研究科学儿童保健对幼儿健康发育成长的影响。方法选取本院于2018年3月-2019年5月收治的140例幼儿作为主要研究对象,随机将幼儿分为对照组与观察组,对照组使用常规保健方式,观察组使用科学儿童保健方式,对比两组幼儿的身体生长发育... 目的研究科学儿童保健对幼儿健康发育成长的影响。方法选取本院于2018年3月-2019年5月收治的140例幼儿作为主要研究对象,随机将幼儿分为对照组与观察组,对照组使用常规保健方式,观察组使用科学儿童保健方式,对比两组幼儿的身体生长发育情况以及幼儿的营养性疾病的发生情况。结果观察组幼儿的身体发育情况明显优于对照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);对照组的幼儿出现营养性贫血的情况高于观察组,但组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),对照组的幼儿出现佝偻病的情况明显高于观察组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用科学儿童保健的方式对幼儿进行保健,可以有效的使幼儿的生长发育情况得到提高,同时还可以降低疾病的发生概率。 展开更多
关键词 科学 保健 健康 发育 影响 幼儿
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计算机科学与技术的未来发展趋势 认领
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作者 陆少华 《科技创新与应用》 2020年第25期154-155,共2页
在我国计算机技术快速发展的背景下,计算机技术在各个产业领域的应用范围不断扩大,而计算机技术的应用性能也得到了最大程度的发挥,人类的学习生活中已经离不开计算机技术的应用。近年来各个国家在计算机科学技术研发中投入的资金比例... 在我国计算机技术快速发展的背景下,计算机技术在各个产业领域的应用范围不断扩大,而计算机技术的应用性能也得到了最大程度的发挥,人类的学习生活中已经离不开计算机技术的应用。近年来各个国家在计算机科学技术研发中投入的资金比例不断增加,计算机科学技术已经成为提升各个国家核心竞争力的重要组成部分。为此文章对计算机科学与技术的发展现状进行分析、对计算机科学与技术的发展方向进行探究,对计算机科学与技术的发展趋势进行研究。 展开更多
关键词 计算机 科学 技术 发展
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The Clash of Civilizations and Cultural Self-Consciousness:Science Fiction and Social Reality in The Three-Body Problem Trilogy 认领
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作者 CHEN Qi 《中国文学研究前沿:英文版》 2020年第2期275-305,共31页
In the view of the relation between science fiction and social reality,the core question of Liu Cixin's The Three-Body Problem trilogy is the clash of civilizations between human and Trisolaran,which causes the fu... In the view of the relation between science fiction and social reality,the core question of Liu Cixin's The Three-Body Problem trilogy is the clash of civilizations between human and Trisolaran,which causes the future possibility of the end of human history.The narrative perspectives of the trilogy are the intelligentsia narrative by Wang Miao(The Three-Body Problem),the heroic narrative by Luo Ji(The Three-Body ProblemⅡ:The Dark Forest),and the narrative of"the last man"by Cheng Xin(The Three-Body ProblemⅢ:Death's End).If the future civilization of the human beings is likely to encounter the cosmic catastrophe which is caused by the clash of civilizations between human and aliens,contemporary human elite have to rethink the values of morality and civilization,and bravely creating new history of human by rejecting the temptation of era of the end of history. 展开更多
关键词 The Three-Body Problem Liu Cixin science fiction social reality clash of civilizations cultural self-consciousness
"Elder's Dual Vector Foil"and the"Spectre"of Karl Marx:The Imagination of Social Form in the 21st Century Chinese Science Fictions 认领
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作者 CHEN Shujie 《中国文学研究前沿:英文版》 2020年第2期306-329,共24页
The imagination of the social form has been an important theme in the 21st century Chinese science fictions.The imagination of a social form on the model of"Elder's dual vector foil"contains a logical as... The imagination of the social form has been an important theme in the 21st century Chinese science fictions.The imagination of a social form on the model of"Elder's dual vector foil"contains a logical asymmetry-high-level technology and a primary social form.From the perspective of historical materialism and dialectics,this imagination and other imaginations of the social form,such as intelligent algorithms,that internally dominate or distort the social form through technology,reveal its flaws and limitations.Compared to the imagination of specific technology,the imagination of social form emphasizes the entirety and connection of multiple social factors,and it is hard to thoroughly dispense the invisible dominance of existing human experience.Marxist theory and methodology are indispensable to the imagination of social form in science fiction.Reigniting the Marxist critical imagination of future social form and activating the aesthetic power of this imagination are the future directions of the development of science fiction. 展开更多
关键词 science fiction social form The Three-Body Problem trilogy MARXISM
From Brain Science to Artificial Intelligence 认领
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作者 Jingtao Fan Lu Fang +2 位作者 Jiamin Wu Yuchen Guo Qionghai Dai 《工程(英文)》 SCIE EI 2020年第3期248-252,共5页
Reviewing the history of the development of artificial intelligence(AI)clearly reveals that brain science has resulted in breakthroughs in AI,such as deep learning.At present,although the developmental trend in AI and... Reviewing the history of the development of artificial intelligence(AI)clearly reveals that brain science has resulted in breakthroughs in AI,such as deep learning.At present,although the developmental trend in AI and its applications has surpassed expectations,an insurmountable gap remains between AI and human intelligence.It is urgent to establish a bridge between brain science and AI research,including a link from brain science to AI,and a connection from knowing the brain to simulating the brain.The first steps toward this goal are to explore the secrets of brain science by studying new brain-imaging technology;to establish a dynamic connection diagram of the brain;and to integrate neuroscience experiments with theory,models,and statistics.Based on these steps,a new generation of AI theory and methods can be studied,and a subversive model and working mode from machine perception and learning to machine thinking and decision-making can be established.This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of adapting brain science to AI. 展开更多
关键词 Artificial intelligence Brain science
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Between History and Fiction:The Possibility of Historical Science Fiction-Narrative Device and Conceptual Experiment in Qian Lifang's Mandate of Heaven(Tianming) 认领
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作者 FAN Yilun 《中国文学研究前沿:英文版》 2020年第2期330-355,共26页
From inventing cutting-edge technology to designing ideal society,science fiction has always been considered as a literature of future.With the introduction of historical dimension,can science fiction provide us a new... From inventing cutting-edge technology to designing ideal society,science fiction has always been considered as a literature of future.With the introduction of historical dimension,can science fiction provide us a new perspective to speculate on the future?In 2004,Qian Lifang's debut novel The Will of Heaven(Tianyi),known as the representative of contemporary Chinese"historical science fiction"won both reputation and market.Her second novel Mandate of Heaven(Tianming)was published seven years later.Compared to the tremendous success of the former,it has received less attention.In existing scholarship,neither The Will of Heaven nor Mandate of Heaven has never been studied and analysed in depth whereas the concept of"historical science fiction"remains ambiguous.Taking Mandate of Heaven as an example,this paper will first discuss the generic problem of"historical science fiction"by comparing it with"alternate history."Based on this,it continues to exam how the science fiction element is incorporated into Qian's narrative with the aid of"time travel"and"multiverse"as narrative device.Finally,the paper will examine the conceptual experiment of"Mandate of Heaven"embodied by three characters in the book,comparing different views on the compatibility between free will and determinism.The paper concludes that"historical science fiction"is a re-invention of history.Its value lies not in defining a new genre,but in the possibility offered to readers to reflect on the dialectical relationship between fiction and history. 展开更多
关键词 Qian Lifang Tianming Tianyi historical science fiction
Science China Technological Sciences 2020年63卷第2期中文摘要 认领
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《中国科学:技术科学》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期247-248,共2页
高能量密度材料的发展刘吉平,刘莉莉,刘晓波含能化合物的性能主要由密度、氧平衡、生成热、稳定性等构成,其中,密度是最重要的因素,因为密度决定爆压和爆速.高能量密度材料(HEDMs)的发展趋势之一是研究高氮的含能材料.氮含量高的化合物... 高能量密度材料的发展刘吉平,刘莉莉,刘晓波含能化合物的性能主要由密度、氧平衡、生成热、稳定性等构成,其中,密度是最重要的因素,因为密度决定爆压和爆速.高能量密度材料(HEDMs)的发展趋势之一是研究高氮的含能材料.氮含量高的化合物不像硝基或硝酸酯那样仅仅依靠碳骨架的分子内氧化释放能量,它可以从形成热中获得大量能量.由于含能材料的反应不是核反应,因此研发出的新的含能材料应该具备优良性能,应能满足做功威力大、对外界作用不敏感、能量释放率高、使用寿命长、相容性良好、生物性能优异、毒性低、吸潮性低,同时还要确保装药对勤务以及战场环境的安全性,满足军事和民用的要求. 展开更多
关键词 高能量密度材料 含能离子盐 SCIENCE China TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2020 含能材料 压力脉动 空化流动 中文摘要 China
哲学实践:阿尔都塞对列宁哲学的解读 认领
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作者 郭咔咔 《理论界》 2020年第6期19-25,共7页
阿尔都塞认为,马克思主义在批判旧哲学的过程中创立了新的历史科学。但是在这一科学革命的过程中,马克思主义哲学并未同步创立。因此,他认为在马克思主义理论中哲学已经落后于科学,这种落后为马克思主义哲学的创新形态即列宁哲学的诞生... 阿尔都塞认为,马克思主义在批判旧哲学的过程中创立了新的历史科学。但是在这一科学革命的过程中,马克思主义哲学并未同步创立。因此,他认为在马克思主义理论中哲学已经落后于科学,这种落后为马克思主义哲学的创新形态即列宁哲学的诞生奠定了条件。阿尔都塞认为,列宁哲学的核心是一种哲学实践。这种哲学实践和科学、历史不同,而是具有政治性即阶级斗争性。列宁哲学实践的重大意义主要是通过列宁阅读黑格尔的著作体现的。其现实意义主要表现在,一方面要坚持无产阶级立场,另一方面要坚持唯物主义观点。阿尔都塞正是由此出发,提出了他的结构主义马克思主义的历史无主体思想,从而试图在理论上回应当时国际共产主义运动中的人道主义思潮。 展开更多
关键词 科学 哲学实践 列宁 黑格尔
Combinatorial Synthesis and High-Throughput Characterization of Microstructure and Phase Transformation in Ni-Ti-Cu-V Quaternary Thin-Film Library 认领
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作者 Naila M.Al Hasan Huilong Hou +4 位作者 Suchismita Sarkar Sigurd Thienhaus Apurva Mehta Alfred Ludwig Ichiro Takeuchi 《工程(英文)》 SCIE EI 2020年第6期637-643,共7页
Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys(SMAs)have found widespread use in the last 70 years,but improving their functional stability remains a key quest for more robust and advanced applications.Named for their ability to ret... Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys(SMAs)have found widespread use in the last 70 years,but improving their functional stability remains a key quest for more robust and advanced applications.Named for their ability to retain their processed shape as a result of a reversible martensitic transformation,SMAs are highly sensitive to compositional variations.Alloying with ternary and quaternary elements to finetune the lattice parameters and the thermal hysteresis of an SMA,therefore,becomes a challenge in materials exploration.Combinatorial materials science allows streamlining of the synthesis process and data management from multiple characterization techniques.In this study,a composition spread of Ni-Ti-Cu-V thin-film library was synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering on a thermally oxidized Si wafer.Composition-dependent phase transformation temperature and microstructure were investigated and determined using high-throughput wavelength dispersive spectroscopy,synchrotron X-ray diffraction,and temperature-dependent resistance measurements.Of the 177 compositions in the materials library,32 were observed to have shape memory effect,of which five had zero or near-zero thermal hysteresis.These compositions provide flexibility in the operating temperature regimes that they can be used in.A phase map for the quaternary system and correlations of functional properties are discussed w让h respect to the local microstructure and composition of the thin-film library. 展开更多
关键词 Ni-Ti-Cu-V alloys Combinatorial materials science Quaternary alloys Shape memory alloys Thin-film library Elastocaloric cooling Thermoelastic cooling Phase transformation High-throughput characterization Property mapping Machine learning
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