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太阳能热泵联合干燥技术的运用分析 预览
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作者 王林军 梁志国 张东 《机械设计与制造工程》 2019年第2期82-86,共5页
对太阳能热泵联合干燥技术的研究现状进行了详细分析,叙述了太阳能热泵联合干燥技术的原理以及国内外最新研究进展,指出其发展能在一定程度上缓解能源逐渐减少和环境污染的问题,并对其发展趋势进行了展望。
关键词 太阳能 热泵 联合干燥 节能 环保
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High open-circuit voltage organic solar cells enabled by a difluorobenzoxadiazole-based conjugated polymer donor
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作者 Ruiwen Zhang Junyi Wang +4 位作者 Xi Liu Shuting Pang Chunhui Duan Fei Huang Yong Cao 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期829-836,共8页
A new polymer donor based on 3,3′-difluoro-2,2′-bithiophene(2F2T) and difluorobenzoxadiazole(ffBX), named 2F2T-ffBX, is designed and synthesized. The organic solar cell(OSC) based on 2F2T-ffBX donor and [6,6]-phenyl... A new polymer donor based on 3,3′-difluoro-2,2′-bithiophene(2F2T) and difluorobenzoxadiazole(ffBX), named 2F2T-ffBX, is designed and synthesized. The organic solar cell(OSC) based on 2F2T-ffBX donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyl acid methyl ester([60]PCBM) acceptor exhibits a high efficiency of 7.3% with a high open-circuit voltage(Voc) of 1.03 V. When blended with perylenediimide-based acceptor(PDI6), the corresponding OSC shows a higher Voc of 1.19 V with a low energy loss of 0.50 e V but a much lower efficiency of 2.0%. The detailed analyses including charge generation, transport, recombination properties, and morphology were performed to understand the performance of corresponding devices. 展开更多
关键词 ORGANIC SOLAR cells CONJUGATED polymer difluorobenzoxadiazole open-circuit VOLTAGE energy LOSS
Fluorination-substitution effect on all-small-molecule organic solar cells
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作者 Qiong Wu Dan Deng +6 位作者 Jianqi Zhang Yang Yang Zhen Wang Huan Li Ruimin Zhou Kun Lu Zhixiang Wei 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期837-844,共8页
Due to the strong crystallinity and anisotropy of small molecules, matched molecular photoelectric properties and morphologies between small molecules and non-fullerene acceptors are especially important in all-small-... Due to the strong crystallinity and anisotropy of small molecules, matched molecular photoelectric properties and morphologies between small molecules and non-fullerene acceptors are especially important in all-small-molecule organic solar cells(OSCs).Introducing fluorine atoms has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve a high device performance through tuning molecular energy levels, absorption and assembly properties. Herein, we designed a novel benzodithiophene-based small molecule donor BDTF-CA with deep highest occupied molecular orbital(HOMO) energy level. All-small-molecule OSCs were fabricated by combing non-fullerene acceptor IDIC with different fluorine-atom numbers. Two or four fluorine atoms were introduced to the end-capped acceptor of IDIC, which are named as IDIC-2 F and IDIC-4 F, respectively. With the increase of fluorination from IDIC to IDIC-4 F, the open circuit voltage(Voc) of the devices decreased, while hole and electron mobilities of the active layers increased by one order of magnitude. Contributed to the most balanced Voc, short-circuit current(Jsc) and fill factor(FF), the device based on BDTF-CA/IDIC-2 F achieved the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.11%. 展开更多
关键词 ORGANIC solar cells all-small-molecule FLUORINATION BLEND MORPHOLOGY energy levels
11.2% Efficiency all-polymer solar cells with high open-circuit voltage
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作者 Yuan Meng Jingnan Wu +8 位作者 Xia Guo Wenyan Su Lei Zhu Jin Fang Zhi-Guo Zhang Feng Liu Maojie Zhang Thomas P. Russell Yongfang Li 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期845-850,共6页
Herein,we fabricated all-polymer solar cells(all-PSCs)based on a fluorinated wide-bandgap p-type conjugated polymer PM6 as the donor,and a narrow bandgap n-type conjugated polymer PZ1 as the acceptor.In addition to th... Herein,we fabricated all-polymer solar cells(all-PSCs)based on a fluorinated wide-bandgap p-type conjugated polymer PM6 as the donor,and a narrow bandgap n-type conjugated polymer PZ1 as the acceptor.In addition to the complementary absorption and matching energy levels,the optimized blend films possess high cystallinity,predominantly face-on stacking,and a suitable phase separated morphology.With this active layer,the devices exhibited a high Vocof 0.96 V,a superior Jscof 17.1 mA cm^-2,a fine fill factor(FF)of 68.2%,and thus an excellent power conversion efficiency(PCE)of 11.2%,which is the highest value reported to date for single-junction all-PSCs.Furthermore,the devices showed good storage stability.After 80 d of storage in the N2-filled glovebox,the PCE still remained over 90%of the original value.Large-area devices(1.1 cm^2)also demonstrated an outstanding performance with a PCE of 9.2%,among the highest values for the reported large-area all-PSCs.These results indicate that the PM6:PZ1 blend is a promising candidate for scale-up production of large area high-performance all-PSCs. 展开更多
关键词 all-polymer solar cells FLUORINE SUBSTITUTION power conversion EFFICIENCY wide bandgap POLYMER POLYMER ACCEPTOR
Breaking 12% efficiency in flexible organic solar cells by using a composite electrode
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作者 Guang Zeng Jingwen Zhang +3 位作者 Xiaobin Chen Hongwei Gu Yaowen Li Yongfang Li 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期851-858,共8页
The performance of flexible organic solar cells(OSCs)significantly relies on the quality of transparent flexible electrode.Here,we used silver nanowires(AgNWs)with various weight ratios to dope high-conductive poly(3,... The performance of flexible organic solar cells(OSCs)significantly relies on the quality of transparent flexible electrode.Here,we used silver nanowires(AgNWs)with various weight ratios to dope high-conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate(PH1000)to optimize the optical and electronic properties of PH1000 film.A high-quality flexible composite electrode PET/Ag-mesh/PH1000:AgNWs-20 with smooth surface,a low sheet resistance of 6Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 86%at 550-nm wavelength was obtained by doping 20 wt%AgNWs to PH1000(PH1000:AgNWs-20).The flexible OSCs based on the PET/Ag-mesh/PH1000:AgNWs-20 electrode delivered a power conversion efficiency(PCE)of12.07%with an open circuit voltage(Voc)of 0.826 V,a short-circuit current density(Jsc)of 20.90 m A/cm2and a fill factor(FF)of69.87%,which is the highest reported PCE for the flexible indium-tin oxide(ITO)-free OSCs.This work demonstrated that the flexible composite electrodes of PET/Ag-mesh/PH1000:AgNWs are promising alternatives for the conventional PET/ITO electrode,and open a new avenue for developing high-performance flexible transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices. 展开更多
关键词 FLEXIBLE ELECTRODES FLEXIBLE organic solar cells silver NANOWIRE composite ELECTRODE power conversion EFFICIENCY
Highly efficient and thermal stable guanidinium-based two-dimensional perovskite solar cells via partial substitution with hydrophobic ammonium
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作者 Yingzhu Zhang Jiehuan Chen +5 位作者 Xiaomei Lian Weitao Yang Jun Li Shuoxun Tian Gang Wu Hongzheng Chen 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期859-865,共7页
Layered two-dimensional(2D)perovskite solar cells(PVSCs)with a chemical formula of C(NH2)3(CH3NH3)3Pb3I10(n=3)have been fabricated through additive engineering,wherein stoichiometrically equivalent guanidinium(GA+)and... Layered two-dimensional(2D)perovskite solar cells(PVSCs)with a chemical formula of C(NH2)3(CH3NH3)3Pb3I10(n=3)have been fabricated through additive engineering,wherein stoichiometrically equivalent guanidinium(GA+)and methylammonium(MA+)serve as spacer cations.The crystallinity of the perovskite films is dramatically enhanced with proper amount of methylammonium thiocyanate(MASCN)added into the precursor solution.In addition,we substitute a small amount of MA+with hydrophobic phenylethylammonium(PEA+),which can passivate trap states of the perovskite films.As a result,the open circuit voltage increases to 1.1 V and the best power conversion efficiency(PCE)of 10.12%is yielded.Furthermore,superior thermal stability and balanced moisture stability of the PEA-substituted GA-based PVSCs are demonstrated,compared to the popular 3D MAPbI3and 2D PEA-based PVSCs.They retain approximately 80%of the original PCE after 30 d at 20%relative humidity(RH),and 50%of the original PCE after 3200 min at 85°C without any encapsulation.This work suggests a new route to achieve both heat and humidity stable PVSCs by simply mixing different spacer cations. 展开更多
关键词 guanidinium-based 2D PEROVSKITE solar cells additive engineering PEA substitution stability
Vacuum-free fabrication of high-performance semitransparent perovskite solar cells via e-glue assisted lamination process
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作者 Hengkai Zhang Yaokang Zhang +6 位作者 Guang Yang Zhiwei Ren Wei Yu Dong Shen Chun-Shing Lee Zijian Zheng Gang Li 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期875-882,共8页
From a base material of conductive polymer(poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate),PEDOT:PSS),a flexible and high-conductivity(as low as 45Ω/sq)transparent electrode was fabricated on polydimethylsil... From a base material of conductive polymer(poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate),PEDOT:PSS),a flexible and high-conductivity(as low as 45Ω/sq)transparent electrode was fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane elastomer by an acid treatment and transfer process.Combined with the D-sorbitol-doped PEDOT:PSS electric glue,we successfully demonstrated a vacuum-free and ambient lamination fabrication process for semi-transparent perovskite solar cells using triple cation Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3perovskite.By this manufacturing-friendly lamination process,we fabricated semitransparent perovskite solar cell devices with power conversion efficiencies up to 16.4%and variable transparencies. 展开更多
关键词 PEROVSKITE solar cells LAMINATION electric GLUE semi-transparent vacuum-free fabrication
斜坡太阳能烟囱增湿-除湿海水淡化系统实验研究
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作者 刘庆君 曹飞 +1 位作者 朱天宇 刘德有 《工程热物理学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期270-274,共5页
详述了一种新型的斜坡太阳能增湿-除湿海水淡化系统的结构和运行原理,并搭建了实验装置模拟该系统性能。通过改变加热板加热功率,研究系统参量对斜坡式增湿-除湿海水淡化系统的影响。实验研究结果表明:斜坡式增湿-除湿海水淡化系统能够... 详述了一种新型的斜坡太阳能增湿-除湿海水淡化系统的结构和运行原理,并搭建了实验装置模拟该系统性能。通过改变加热板加热功率,研究系统参量对斜坡式增湿-除湿海水淡化系统的影响。实验研究结果表明:斜坡式增湿-除湿海水淡化系统能够稳定产水。在一定工况下,产水量比不采用冷凝器除湿的烟囱海水淡化系统能提高52.1%。随着加热功率增加,日淡水产量增加,但是热损和烟囱出口湿空气损失也会增加,导致日淡水产量增速降低。当加热功率为500W时,系统日淡水产量为11.9 kg·m-2·d-1,系统效率为15.9%,盖板表面热损为50.9 W·m-2。 展开更多
关键词 太阳能 增湿-除湿 烟囱 产水率 系统效率
Particles in a circulation loop for solar energy capture and storage
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作者 Q. Kang G. Flamant +3 位作者 R. Dewil J. Baeyens H.L. Zhang Y.M. Deng 《中国颗粒学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期149-156,共8页
This study defines and assesses the selection ciiteria for suitable particulate materials to be used in an upflow bubbling fluidized bed (UBFB) or dense up-flow powder circulation system for solar energy capture and s... This study defines and assesses the selection ciiteria for suitable particulate materials to be used in an upflow bubbling fluidized bed (UBFB) or dense up-flow powder circulation system for solar energy capture and storage. The main criteria identified are based on the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties, attrition behavior, and the considerations of health and environmental hazards of the candidate powders. Finally, a cost comparison and tentative ranking of the different can didate powders is presented in addition to a weighted scoring. Significant scoring differences can be observed between the various materials. Olivine possesses the most favorable characteristics and appears to be the particulate material of choice for solid/gas suspension heat transfer fluids. 展开更多
关键词 Concentrated SOLAR power Particle-in-tube RECEIVER PARTICLE properties Selection CRITERIA
Renewable Energy:Wind Turbines,Solar Cells,Small Hydroelectric Plants,Biomass,and Geothermal Sources of Energy 预览
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作者 Natasa A. Kablar 《能源与动力工程:英文版》 2019年第4期162-172,共11页
In this paper,we present five basic types of renewable energy sources,namely:wind turbines,solar cells,small hydroelectric plants,biomass,and geothermal sources of energy.Wind turbines transform energy of wind into el... In this paper,we present five basic types of renewable energy sources,namely:wind turbines,solar cells,small hydroelectric plants,biomass,and geothermal sources of energy.Wind turbines transform energy of wind into electrical energy,solar cells transform energy of sun into electric energy,hydroelectric plants transform energy of water into electric energy,devices or machines can be constructed to transform energy of biomass into heat energy,and geothermal energy into some form of energy.In this paper we present basic information and reasons why there is need today to use these forms of energy—called green energies,we present how these devices or machines function,and we propose for future work design of typical devices or machines that will satisfy basic functional needs. 展开更多
关键词 Wind ENERGY solar ENERGY water ENERGY BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGIES electrical power generation of electricity
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High-resolution pixelated CdZnTe detector prototype system for solar hard X-ray imager 预览
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作者 Shen Wang Jian-Hua Guo +1 位作者 Yan Zhang Wei Chen 《核技术:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期53-58,共6页
A multichannel low-noise electronic prototype system was designed for a pixelated CdZnTe detector. This system is the result of preliminary work on a solar hard X-ray imager, which is one of the three payloads for fut... A multichannel low-noise electronic prototype system was designed for a pixelated CdZnTe detector. This system is the result of preliminary work on a solar hard X-ray imager, which is one of the three payloads for future solar observations satellite- Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S). A new charge-sensitive amplifier application-specific integrated circuit, VATA450.3, with an on-chip analog-to-digital converter, is used to read out 8 × 8 anode pixel signals. Two CdZnTe detectors with a thickness of 2 mm and 5 mm were tested. The 2-mm-thick detector achieved energy resolution better than 5%(fullwidth at half-maximum, FWHM) at 59.5 keV, and the 5-mm-thick detector had better resolution than 1.2%(FWHM) at 662 keV. The design and test results of the prototype system are discussed in this paper. 展开更多
关键词 CDZNTE READOUT system SOLAR observation HARD X-ray IMAGER
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Research progress in lead-less or lead-free three-dimensional perovskite absorber materials for solar cells 预览
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作者 Huan-yu Zhang Rui Li +2 位作者 Wen-wu Liu Mei Zhang Min Guo 《矿物冶金与材料学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期387-403,共17页
The trend toward lead-free or lead-less perovskite solar cells(PSCs)has attracted increasing attention over the past few years because the toxicity of lead(Pb)is one of the substantial restrictions for large-scale app... The trend toward lead-free or lead-less perovskite solar cells(PSCs)has attracted increasing attention over the past few years because the toxicity of lead(Pb)is one of the substantial restrictions for large-scale applications.Researchers have investigated the viability of substituting Pb with other elements(group 14 elements,group 2 elements,transition-metal elements,and group 13 and 15 elements)in the three-dimensional(3D)perovskites by theoretical calculations and experimental explorations.In this paper,recent research progress in Pb-less and Pb-free PSCs on the perovskite compositions,deposition methods,and device structures are summarized and the main problems that hinder the enhancement of device efficiency and stability are discussed in detail.To date,the fully Sn-based PSCs have shown a power conversion efficiency(PCE)of 8.12%and poor device stability.However,lead-less PSCs have shown higher PCE and a better stability.In addition,the introduction of double-perovskite materials also draws researchers’attention.We believe that the engineering of elemental composition,perovskite deposition methods,and interfacial modification are critical for the future development of Pb-less and Pb-free PSCs. 展开更多
关键词 PEROVSKITE solar cells LEAD-FREE PEROVSKITE MATERIALS lead-less PEROVSKITE MATERIALS composition engineering stability
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Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells over 10%by employing drop-coated conductive PEDOT:PSS transparent anodes
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作者 Huiqin Cui Wei Song +4 位作者 Billy Fanady Ruixiang Peng Jianfeng Zhang Jiaming Huang Ziyi Ge 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期500-505,共6页
Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonic acid)(PEDOT:PSS)has been explored to fabricate flexible and stretchable conductors.Generally,PEDOT:PSS transparent anodes are prepared by spin-c... Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonic acid)(PEDOT:PSS)has been explored to fabricate flexible and stretchable conductors.Generally,PEDOT:PSS transparent anodes are prepared by spin-coating method.In this article,we adopt a method by dropping PEDOT:PSS aqueous solution on the PET plastic substrate to fabricate flexible electrodes.Compared with spin coating,drop-coating is simple and cost-effective with large-area fabrications.Through this method,we fabricated highly transparent conductive electrodes and systematically studied their electrical,optical,morphological and mechanical properties.With dimethyl sulfoxide/methanesulfonic acid(DMSO/MSA)treated PEDOT:PSS electrode,bendable devices based on non-fullerene system displayed an open-circuit voltage of 0.925 V,a fill factor of 70.74%,and a high power conversion efficiency(PCE)of 10.23%under 100 mW cm^-2 illumination,which retained over 80%of the initial PCE value after 1000 bending cycles.Based on the findings,drop-coated PEDOT:PSS electrodes exhibited high suitability for the development of large-area and high-efficiency printed solar cell modules in the future. 展开更多
关键词 drop-coating PEDOT:PSS FLEXIBLE electrodes FIGURE of MERIT organic solar cells
Delta-doped quantum wire tunnel junction for highly concentrated solar cells
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作者 Ali Bahrami Mahyar Dehdast +1 位作者 Shahram Mohammadnejad Habib Badri Ghavifekr 《中国物理B:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期275-279,共5页
We propose a novel structure for tunnel junction based on delta-doped AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wires. Higher spatial confinement of quantum wires alongside the increased effective doping concentration in the delta-doped re... We propose a novel structure for tunnel junction based on delta-doped AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wires. Higher spatial confinement of quantum wires alongside the increased effective doping concentration in the delta-doped regions extremely increase the peak tunneling current and enhance the performance of tunnel junction. The proposed structure can be used as tunnel junction in the multijunction solar cells under the highest possible thermodynamically limited solar concentration.The combination of the quantum wire with the delta-doped structure can be of benefit to the solar cells’ advantages including higher number of sub-bands and high degeneracy. Simulation results show a voltage drop of 40 mV due to the proposed tunnel junction used in a multijunction solar cell which presents an extremely low resistance to the achieved peak tunneling current. 展开更多
关键词 delta-doping quantum wire solar cell TUNNEL JUNCTION
Novel dye-sensitized solar cell architecture using TiO2-coated Ag nanowires array as photoanode
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作者 Ming Wang Sam Zhang +2 位作者 Zhao-Fu Du Li-Dong Sun Dong-Liang Zhao 《稀有金属:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期316-320,共5页
With the aim of reducing series resistance and increasing dye loading,novel dye-sensitized solar cell architecture was designed with TiO2 nanoparticle-coated Ag nanowires array as the photoanode.Ag nanowire array was ... With the aim of reducing series resistance and increasing dye loading,novel dye-sensitized solar cell architecture was designed with TiO2 nanoparticle-coated Ag nanowires array as the photoanode.Ag nanowire array was prepared by anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templateassisted electrochemical deposition route.Then,Ag nanowires were coated by TiO2 nanoparticles in hydrothermal process.The structures of the photoanode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).Ag nanowires are covered by a layer of very fine nanoparticles with a diameter of less than 5 nm.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) show that Ag nanowires have a strong preferred orientation in (220) direction and the TiO2 coating layer is a polycrystalline structure.With this photoanode,3.2 % conversion efficiency is achieved for the cell sensitized with N3 dye. 展开更多
关键词 DYE-SENSITIZED solar cell Nano WIRES ARRAY PHOTOANODE Anodic aluminum OXIDE
正交试验法探讨太阳能-空气源热泵影响因素 预览
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作者 李永珍 丁国忠 +2 位作者 纪亚琨 陈文明 陈想 《建筑节能》 CAS 2019年第3期129-133,共5页
将太阳能技术与热泵系统相结合,可以实现二者的优势互补。为确定太阳能空气源热泵热水系统优化设计过程中的优先优化次序,利用暖通模拟软件搭建模型,以正交试验为手段,以系统COP为目标函数,分别以极差分析和方差分析法对目标函数进行分... 将太阳能技术与热泵系统相结合,可以实现二者的优势互补。为确定太阳能空气源热泵热水系统优化设计过程中的优先优化次序,利用暖通模拟软件搭建模型,以正交试验为手段,以系统COP为目标函数,分别以极差分析和方差分析法对目标函数进行分析,从而获得太阳能集热器面积、集热器倾角、水箱容积对系统性能的影响程度。研究表明:集热器面积和水箱容积对太阳能空气源热泵系统性能有高度显著影响,在进行系统优化设计时可优先对集热器面积和水箱容积进行优化设计。 展开更多
关键词 热水系统 太阳能 正交试验 热泵 系统COP 优化设计
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Microstructures and thermal properties of Sn-Bi-Pb-Zn alloys as heat storage and transfer materials
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作者 Qing-Meng Wang Xiao-Min Cheng +2 位作者 Yuan-Yuan Li Guo-Ming Yu Zhi Liu 《稀有金属:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期350-358,共9页
Low-melting-point alloy has the characteristics of high thermal conductivity,low solidus temperature and the wide range of use temperature,which is a potential heat transfer medium.The microstructure and thermal prope... Low-melting-point alloy has the characteristics of high thermal conductivity,low solidus temperature and the wide range of use temperature,which is a potential heat transfer medium.The microstructure and thermal properties of Sn-Bi-Pb-Zn alloys as heat transfer and storage material were investigated in this paper.The phase compositions,microstructure and thermal properties were investigated by X-ray diffusion (XRD),electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis,respectively.The results show that the phases of Sn-Bi-Zn and Sn-Pb-Zn alloys are mainly eutectic formed by solid solution,while the formation of Pb7Bi3 intermetallic compounds decreases the melting point of Sn-Bi-Pb and Bi-Pb-Zn.The thermal properties of the zinc-containing alloys are better than that of Sn-Bi-Pb,but the weight of the zinc-containing alloys significantly reduces above 900 ℃.As the density,specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity change with temperature and physical state,the thermal conductivity of the alloys first decreases and then increases.These results demonstrate the feasibility of using low-melting alloys as the heat transfer and storage material. 展开更多
关键词 Heat transfer Microstructure Metal alloy Thermal properties Solar power
Improvement on the interface properties of p-GaAs/n-InP heterojunction for wafer bonded four-junction solar cells
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作者 Mengyan Zhang Tao Ning +2 位作者 Jie Chen Lijie Sun Lihua Zhou 《材料科学技术学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期330-333,共4页
The p-GaAs/n-InP heterojunction was fabricated by direct wafer bonding technology. The optimized atomic level contact between GaAs and InP is critical for getting good ohmic contact and removing the bubbles or voids a... The p-GaAs/n-InP heterojunction was fabricated by direct wafer bonding technology. The optimized atomic level contact between GaAs and InP is critical for getting good ohmic contact and removing the bubbles or voids at the interface, which is helpful to enhance the efficiency of wafer bonded multi-junction solar cells. Through the surface megasonic cleaning and the plasma treatment, we have achieved the high quality bonding interface without bubbles or voids and with interface resistivity of about 0.1 ohms/cm~2. A GaInP/GaAs//InGaAsP/InGaAs 4-junction solar cell was prepared with the high efficiency of 34.4%(AM0)at 1 sun. 展开更多
关键词 Solar cells WAFER bonding INTERFACE properties HETEROJUNCTION
Observational evidences of wave excitation and inverse cascade in a distant Earth foreshock region
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作者 Jiansen HE Die DUAN +2 位作者 Xingyu ZHU Limei YAN Linghua WANG 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期619-630,共12页
The foreshock with nascent plasma turbulence is regarded as a fascinating region to understand basic plasma physical processes, e.g., wave-particle interactions as well as wave-wave couplings. Although there have been... The foreshock with nascent plasma turbulence is regarded as a fascinating region to understand basic plasma physical processes, e.g., wave-particle interactions as well as wave-wave couplings. Although there have been plenty of intensive studies on this topic, some key clues about the physical processes still lack observations. A relatively comprehensive case study with some new observations is presented in this work based on the WIND spacecraft observations. In this case, upstream energetic protons were drifting at tens of Alfvén speed with respect to the background plasma protons. When looking at the magnetic wave activities, we find the co-existence of high-frequency(0.1-0.5 Hz) large-amplitude right-hand polarized(RHP) waves and lowfrequency(0.02-0.1 Hz) small-amplitude left-hand polarized(LHP) waves in the spacecraft(SC) frame. The observed anticorrelation between magnetic and velocity fluctuations along with the sunward magnetic field direction indicates that the lowfrequency LHP waves in the SC frame are in fact the sunward upstream RHP Alfvénic waves in the solar wind frame. This new observation corroborates the applicability of theories about plasma non-resonance instability and inverse cascade to the foreshock region, where the downstream high-frequency RHP parent waves are excited by the upstream energetic protons through non-resonance instability and the low-frequency RHP daughter waves are generated by the parent waves due to nonlinear parametric instability. Furthermore, enhanced downstream energetic proton fluxes are inferred to result from scattering of the upstream protons by the nascent turbulent fluctuations. Therefore, some critical clues about the newborn turbulence in the foreshock are provided in this work. 展开更多
关键词 Solar WIND FORESHOCK Wave-particle interaction PARAMETRIC INSTABILITY
Geoengineering and the blockchain: Coordinating Carbon Dioxide Removal and Solar Radiation Management to tackle future emissions
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作者 Andrew LOCKLEY Zhifu MI D'Mans COFFMAN 《工程管理前沿:英文版》 2019年第1期38-51,共14页
Geoengineering is a proposed response to anthropogenic global warming (AGW). Conventionally it consists of two strands: Solar Radiation Management (SRM), which is fast-acting, incomplete but inexpensive, and Carbon Di... Geoengineering is a proposed response to anthropogenic global warming (AGW). Conventionally it consists of two strands: Solar Radiation Management (SRM), which is fast-acting, incomplete but inexpensive, and Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR), which is slower acting, more expensive, and comprehensive. Pairing SRM and CDR offers a contractually complete solution for future emissions if effectively-scaled and coordinated. SRM offsets warming, while CDR takes effect. We suggest coordination using a blockchain, i.e. smart contracts and a distributed ledger. Specifically, we integrate CDR futures with time and volume-matched SRM orders, to address emissions contractually before release. This provides an economically and environmentally proportionate solution to CO2 emissions at the wellhead, with robust contractual transparency, and minimal overhead cost. Our proposal offers a 'polluter pays' implementation of Long & Shepherds SRM 'bridge' concept. This 'polluter geoengineers' approach mandates and verifies emissionslinked payments with minimal friction, delay, or cost. Finally, we compare alternative market designs against this proposal, finding that this proposal offers several advantages. We conclude that blockchain implementation of the 'polluter geoengineers' approach is attractive and feasible for larger wellhead contracts. We also identify a handful of advantages and disadvantages that merit further study. 展开更多
关键词 GEOENGINEERING Solar Radiation MANAGEMENT Carbon Dioxide Removal FUTURES MARKETS smart contracts blockchain
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