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Glutamate receptor delocalization in postsynaptic membrane and reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease 预览
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作者 Ning Li Yang Li +3 位作者 Li-Juan Li Ke Zhu Yan Zheng Xiao-Min Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1037-1045,共9页
Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory,and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease.However,the mechanis... Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory,and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease.However,the mechanisms by which synaptic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease remain unclear.In the present study,Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice were used to determine the relationship between decreased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and pathological changes and cognitive-behavioral deterioration,as well as possible mechanisms underlying decreased synaptic plasticity in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease-like diseases.APP/PS1 double transgenic(5XFAD;Jackson Laboratory)mice and their littermates(wild-type,controls)were used in this study.Additional 6-weekold and 10-week-old 5XFAD mice and wild-type mice were used for electrophysiological recording of hippocampal dentate gyrus.For 10-week-old 5XFAD mice and wild-type mice,the left hippocampus was used for electrophysiological recording,and the right hippocampus was used for biochemical experiments or immunohistochemical staining to observe synaptophysin levels and amyloid beta deposition levels.The results revealed that,compared with wild-type mice,6-week-old 5XFAD mice exhibited unaltered long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.Another set of 5XFAD mice began to show attenuation at the age of 10 weeks,and a large quantity of amyloid beta protein was accumulated in hippocampal cells.The location ofα-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits in synaptosomes was decreased.These findings indicate that the delocalization of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and an associated decline in synaptic plasticity may be key mechanisms in the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease.The use and care of animals were in strict accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Ethics Committee of Capital Medical University,China on December 17,2015(approval No.AE 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION Alzheimer’s disease SYNAPTIC plasticity hippocampus learning and memory long-term POTENTIATION βamyloid glutamate receptor SYNAPTIC strength neural REGENERATION
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星形胶质细胞在三方突触中对突触信息的加工处理和调控作用 预览
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作者 郭航 马亚群 +4 位作者 李海红 马丽 卢彦 王筱君 马玉龙 《中华神经创伤外科电子杂志》 2019年第3期182-185,共4页
传统观念认为脑组织功能专属于神经元活动,最新研究表明除了经典的突触前、后神经元之间存在“双向”信息流之外,星形胶质细胞也参与突触的神经元间信息交换、对突触活性做出反应、调节突触传递等过程。本文将对星形角质细胞在突触生理... 传统观念认为脑组织功能专属于神经元活动,最新研究表明除了经典的突触前、后神经元之间存在“双向”信息流之外,星形胶质细胞也参与突触的神经元间信息交换、对突触活性做出反应、调节突触传递等过程。本文将对星形角质细胞在突触生理学中的作用,就其整合和加工处理突触信息并通过释放胶质递质最终调节突触传递和可塑性综述如下。 展开更多
关键词 三方突触 星形胶质细胞 突触传递 突触可塑性
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Two-dimensional materials for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems
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作者 Shuiyuan Wang David Wei Zhang Peng Zhou 《科学通报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第15期1056-1066,共11页
Synapses in biology provide a variety of functions for the neural system. Artificial synaptic electronics that mimic the biological neuron functions are basic building blocks and developing novel artificial synapses i... Synapses in biology provide a variety of functions for the neural system. Artificial synaptic electronics that mimic the biological neuron functions are basic building blocks and developing novel artificial synapses is essential for neuromorphic computation. Inspired by the unique features of biological synapses that the basic connection components of the nervous system and the parallelism, low power consumption, fault tolerance, self-learning and robustness of biological neural systems, artificial synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems have the potential to overcome the traditional von Neumann bottleneck and create a new paradigm for dealing with complex problems such as pattern recognition, image classification, decision making and associative learning. Nowadays, two-dimensional(2 D) materials have drawn great attention in simulating synaptic dynamic plasticity and neuromorphic computing with their unique properties. Here we describe the basic concepts of bio-synaptic plasticity and learning, the 2 D materials library and its preparation. We review recent advances in synaptic electronics and artificial neuromorphic systems based on 2 D materials and provide our perspective in utilizing 2 D materials to implement synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems in hardware. 展开更多
关键词 Artificial SYNAPTIC ELECTRONICS Neuromorphic COMPUTATION 2D MATERIALS SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY Hebbian learning
Paired associative stimulation improves synaptic plasticity and functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia 预览
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作者 Yan Hu Tie-Cheng Guo +2 位作者 Xiang-Yu Zhang Jun Tian Yin-Shan Lu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第11期1968-1976,共9页
Paired associative stimulation is a relatively new non-invasive brain stimulation technique that combines transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. The effects of paired associative stimulati... Paired associative stimulation is a relatively new non-invasive brain stimulation technique that combines transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. The effects of paired associative stimulation on the excitability of the cerebral cortex can vary according to the time interval between the transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. We established a model of cerebral ischemia in rats via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We administered paired associative stimulation with a frequency of 0.05 Hz 90 times over 4 weeks. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory using the Morris water maze. Changes in the cerebral ultra-structure and synaptic plasticity were assessed via transmission electron microscopy and a 64-channel multi-electrode array. We measured mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the hippocampus using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay. Paired associative stimulation treatment significantly improved learning and memory in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. The ultra-structures of synapses in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia were restored by paired associative stimulation. Long-term potentiation at synapses in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus was enhanced as well. The protein and mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 increased after paired associative stimulation treatment. These data indicate that paired associative stimulation can protect cog-nition after cerebral ischemia. The observed effect may be mediated by increases in the mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, and by enhanced synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. The animal experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, China(appr 展开更多
关键词 cerebral ischemia paired ASSOCIATIVE stimulation cognitive function long-term POTENTIATION SYNAPTIC plasticity Morris water maze SYNAPTIC structure N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC factor MULTI-ELECTRODE array neural regeneration
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基于SBT忆阻器元件的神经突触设计 预览
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作者 孙菊斋 刘文昊 +4 位作者 陆增 孙广杰 窦明龙 窦刚 李玉霞 《中国科技论文》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第3期334-339,共6页
利用SBT(Sr0.95Ba0.05TiO3)忆阻器进行神经突触设计,并分析其模拟的神经突触的性能。首先,采用分周期积累建模的方法对测得的忆阻器电压、电流数据进行建模,得到SBT忆阻器忆导值随时间的变化;其次,将忆导值作为突触权重,拟合到忆阻器普... 利用SBT(Sr0.95Ba0.05TiO3)忆阻器进行神经突触设计,并分析其模拟的神经突触的性能。首先,采用分周期积累建模的方法对测得的忆阻器电压、电流数据进行建模,得到SBT忆阻器忆导值随时间的变化;其次,将忆导值作为突触权重,拟合到忆阻器普遍适用的模型中,更好地描述SBT忆阻突触的记忆及遗忘特性;最后,通过数值仿真实验对SBT忆阻突触的脉冲突触可塑性、长/短时记忆可塑性及"学习经验式"行为进行分析。实验结果表明,SBT忆阻突触具有良好的突触可塑性,能够实现类脑学习、记忆过程。 展开更多
关键词 SBT忆阻器 突触建模 人工神经突触 突触可塑性
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An enriched environment promotes synaptic plasticity and cognitive recovery after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice 预览
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作者 Chuan-Jie Wang Yi Wu +2 位作者 Qun Zhang Ke-Wei Yu Yu-Yang Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期462-469,共8页
Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons.In this study,we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synap... Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons.In this study,we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synaptic remodeling in a mouse model of chronic cerebral ischemia,produced by subjecting adult male C57BL/6 mice to permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion.Three days post- operatively,mice were randomly assigned to the environmental enrichment and standard housing groups.Mice in the standard housing group were housed and fed a standard diet.Mice in the environmental enrichment group were housed in a cage with various toys and fed a standard diet.Then,28 days postoperatively,spatial learning and memory were tested using the Morris water maze.The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43,synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus were analyzed by western blot assay.The number of synapses was evaluated by electron microscopy.In the water maze test,mice in the environmental enrichment group had a shorter escape latency,traveled markedly longer distances,spent more time in the correct quadrant (northeast zone),and had a higher frequency of crossings compared with the standard housing group.The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 were substantially upregulated in the hippocampus in the environmental enrichment group compared with the standard housing group.Furthermore,electron microscopy revealed that environmental enrichment increased the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region.Collectively,these findings suggest that environmental enrichment ameliorates the spatial learning and memory impairment induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.Environmental enrichment in mice with cerebral ischemia likely promotes cognitive recovery by inducing plastic changes in synapses. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION environmental enrichment CEREBRAL ischemia COGNITIVE RECOVERY brain PLASTICITY and reorganization synaptic PLASTICITY electron microscopy growth-associated PROTEIN 43 synaptophysin postsynaptic density PROTEIN 95 permanent middle CEREBRAL artery occlusion neural REGENERATION
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Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on neural differentiation of stem cells offer new hope for neurological disease treatment 预览
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作者 Chao Ren Yong-Qiang Ji +5 位作者 Hong Liu Zhe Wang Jia-Hui Wang Cai-Yi Zhang Li-Na Guan Pei-Yuan Yin 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1152-1157,共6页
Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the different... Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the differentiation of stem cells in vitro and in vivo is affected by multiple factors,the final differentiation outcome is strongly associated with the microenvironment in which the stem cells are located.Accordingly,the optimal microenvironment for inducing stem cell differentiation is a hot topic.EGb761 is extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree.It is used worldwide and is becoming one of the focuses of stem cell research.Studies have shown that EGb761 can antagonize oxygen free radicals,stabilize cell membranes,promote neurogenesis and synaptogenesis,increase the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors,and replicate the environment required during the differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.This offers the possibility of using EGb761 to induce the differentiation of stem cells,facilitating stem cell transplantation.To provide a comprehensive reference for the future application of EGb761 in stem cell therapy,we reviewed studies investigating the influence of EGb761 on stem cells.These started with the composition and neuropharmacology of EGb761,and eventually led to the finding that EGb761 and some of its important components play important roles in the differentiation of stem cells and the protection of a beneficial microenvironment for stem cell transplantation. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION GINKGO biloba extract GINKGOLIDE B traditional Chinese medicine STEM cells induction of differentiation STEM cell transplantation synaptic plasticity pharmacological effect NEUROLOGICAL diseases nervous systems neural REGENERATION
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Remodeling dendritic spines for treatment of traumatic brain injury 预览
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作者 Ye Xiong Asim Mahmood Michael Chopp 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期1477-1480,共4页
Traumatic brain injury is an important global public health problem.Traumatic brain injury not only causes neural cell death,but also induces dendritic spine degeneration.Spared neurons from cell death in the injured ... Traumatic brain injury is an important global public health problem.Traumatic brain injury not only causes neural cell death,but also induces dendritic spine degeneration.Spared neurons from cell death in the injured brain may exhibit dendrite damage,dendritic spine degeneration,mature spine loss,synapse loss,and impairment of activity.Dendritic degeneration and synapse loss may significantly contribute to functional impairments and neurological disorders following traumatic brain injury.Normal function of the nervous system depends on maintenance of the functionally intact synaptic connections between the presynaptic and postsynaptic spines from neurons and their target cells.During synaptic plasticity,the numbers and shapes of dendritic spines undergo dynamic reorganization.Enlargement of spine heads and the formation and stabilization of new spines are associated with long-term potentiation,while spine shrinkage and retraction are associated with long-term depression.Consolidation of memory is associated with remodeling and growth of preexisting synapses and the formation of new synapses.To date,there is no effective treatment to prevent dendritic degeneration and synapse loss.This review outlines the current data related to treatments targeting dendritic spines that propose to enhance spine remodeling and improve functional recovery after traumatic brain injury.The mechanisms underlying proposed beneficial effects of therapy targeting dendritic spines remain elusive,possibly including blocking activation of Cofilin induced by beta amyloid,Ras activation,and inhibition of GSK-3 signaling pathway.Further understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying synaptic degeneration/loss following traumatic brain injury will advance the understanding of the pathophysiology induced by traumatic brain injury and may lead to the development of novel treatments for traumatic brain injury. 展开更多
关键词 TRAUMATIC brain injury dendritic SPINES SYNAPTIC plasticity spinogenic agents TREATMENT SPINE REMODELING memory functional recovery
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Electronic synapses based on ultrathin quasi-two-dimensional gallium oxide memristor
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作者 王硕培 何聪丽 +3 位作者 汤建 杨蓉 时东霞 张广宇 《中国物理B:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期183-188,共6页
Synapse emulation is very important for realizing neuromorphic computing, which could overcome the energy and throughput limitations of today’s computing architectures. Memristors have been extensively studied for us... Synapse emulation is very important for realizing neuromorphic computing, which could overcome the energy and throughput limitations of today’s computing architectures. Memristors have been extensively studied for using in nonvolatile memory storage and neuromorphic computing. In this paper, we report the fabrication of vertical sandwiched memristor device using ultrathin quasi-two-dimensional gallium oxide produced by squeegee method. The as-fabricated two-terminal memristor device exhibited the essential functions of biological synapses, such as depression and potentiation of synaptic weight, transition from short time memory to long time memory, spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and spike-rate-dependent plasticity. The synaptic weight of the memristor could be tuned by the applied voltage pulse, number,width, and frequency. We believe that the injection of the top Ag cations should play a significant role for the memristor phenomenon. The ultrathin of medium layer represents an advance to integration in vertical direction for future applications and our results provide an alternative way to fabricate synaptic devices. 展开更多
关键词 GALLIUM oxide MEMRISTOR artificial SYNAPSE SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
人脐静脉内皮细胞来源外泌体有助于促进缺血性脑卒中小鼠的康复 预览
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作者 张晓星 胡慧 李跃华 《中国临床医学》 2019年第3期425-431,共7页
目的:探讨人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)来源的外泌体对缺血性脑卒中小鼠的治疗效果。方法:提取并鉴定HUVECs细胞来源的外泌体(HUVECs-exo),尾静脉注射30μg(溶于100μLPBS中)外泌体至短暂性大脑中动脉缺血性模型小鼠体内,对照组注射同等体... 目的:探讨人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)来源的外泌体对缺血性脑卒中小鼠的治疗效果。方法:提取并鉴定HUVECs细胞来源的外泌体(HUVECs-exo),尾静脉注射30μg(溶于100μLPBS中)外泌体至短暂性大脑中动脉缺血性模型小鼠体内,对照组注射同等体积的PBS。术后第1、3、7、14、21、28天对小鼠进行mNSS评分,磁共振成像检测小鼠的梗死范围,在第28天将小鼠断头取脑,CD31/BrdU、DCX/BrdU、NeuN/BrdU免疫荧光双染评价小鼠梗死边缘区血管及神经元的新生,Western印迹法检测小鼠梗死边缘区突触前膜蛋白Synaptophysin及突触后膜蛋白PSD-95的表达情况,进而检测突触重塑。结果:HUVECs-exo组小鼠梗死范围显著小于PBS对照组(P<0.05),梗死边缘区新生血管、神经前体细胞及成熟神经元显著高于PBS对照组(P<0.05),HUVECs-exo组突触前膜蛋白Synaptophysin及后膜蛋白PSD-95表达含量显著高于PBS对照组(P<0.05)。HUVECs-exo组及PBS对照组在造模后第1、3、7天,神经功能评分无明显差异,在第14、21、28天HUVECs-exo组神经功能评分显著低于PBS对照组(P<0.05)。结论:HUVECs-exo尾静脉注射能够减小缺血性脑卒中后的梗死范围,促进梗死边缘区血管及神经元新生,促进突触重塑,改善卒中后的神经功能预后。 展开更多
关键词 缺血性脑卒中 外泌体 神经新生 血管新生 突触重塑
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Menin:一个新的神经系统疾病防治靶点
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作者 朱慰文 杨三桥 唐小卿 《中南药学》 CAS 2019年第6期889-894,共6页
Menin蛋白是MEN1基因编码的产物,可通过调控突触可塑性和神经炎症发挥神经保护作用。神经炎症的发生和突触可塑性障碍被证明参与大多数神经系统疾病的发病过程,因此开发抑制神经炎症和改善突触可塑性的药物对治疗神经系统疾病具有重要... Menin蛋白是MEN1基因编码的产物,可通过调控突触可塑性和神经炎症发挥神经保护作用。神经炎症的发生和突触可塑性障碍被证明参与大多数神经系统疾病的发病过程,因此开发抑制神经炎症和改善突触可塑性的药物对治疗神经系统疾病具有重要意义。所以本文将综述Menin在神经系统疾病相关症状中的调节作用及潜在机制,并展望Menin对阿尔兹海默症和帕金森病等神经退行性疾病的潜在防治作用。 展开更多
关键词 MENIN蛋白 神经系统疾病 神经炎症 突触可塑性
美金刚通过调节ERK、CREB信号通路及突触可塑性保护脑缺血再灌注小鼠的作用研究 预览
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作者 宋加兴 张清秀 +1 位作者 何磊 魏秀娥 《中国比较医学杂志》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第6期1-7,共7页
目的 研究美金刚对脑缺血再灌注小鼠模型ERK、CREB信号通路及突触可塑性的作用机制。方法 60只小鼠随机分为假手术组(Sham),模型组(MCAO),美金刚20 mg/kg组(M20),美金刚4 mg/kg组(M4),生理盐水组(NS),除假手术组外,其余4组均使用线栓法... 目的 研究美金刚对脑缺血再灌注小鼠模型ERK、CREB信号通路及突触可塑性的作用机制。方法 60只小鼠随机分为假手术组(Sham),模型组(MCAO),美金刚20 mg/kg组(M20),美金刚4 mg/kg组(M4),生理盐水组(NS),除假手术组外,其余4组均使用线栓法建立小鼠大脑中动脉梗死模型,观察小鼠的体重变化及神经功能缺损程度,甲酚紫染色观察小鼠脑萎缩体积,粘附物去除实验观察缺血小鼠的运动及感觉功能变化,Morris水迷宫检测小鼠的认知记忆功能,Western Blot检测ERK1/2、p-ERK1/2、CREB、p-CREB、PSD-95、Synaptophysin等蛋白的表达情况。结果 与模型组(MCAO)、美金刚4 mg/kg组(M4)及生理盐水组(NS)相比,美金刚20 mg/kg组的小鼠体重下降程度减小,神经功能缺损评分下降,脑萎缩体积减轻,小鼠感觉运动功能出现改善,水迷宫实验结果提示学习记忆损伤程度减轻,p-ERK1/2、p-CREB、PSD-95、synaptophysin等蛋白表达升高。结论 小鼠脑缺血后持续给予美金刚20 mg/kg治疗,可以提高小鼠的神经功能恢复,改善小鼠的学习记忆功能,改善了大脑的突触可塑性。 展开更多
关键词 脑缺血 美金刚 认知功能 突触可塑性 小鼠
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基于忆阻器材料的人工神经突触的研究进展
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作者 吴婷婷 《电工材料》 CAS 2019年第4期6-10,共5页
忆阻器是一种结构简单、功耗小和操作速度快的新兴非线性存储器,兼具记忆和逻辑运算的功能,忆阻器与生物大脑的神经突触类似,是一种极具潜力替代当前计算系统的电子材料。简述了忆阻器的基本原理与特性、忆阻器在模拟突触可塑性方面的... 忆阻器是一种结构简单、功耗小和操作速度快的新兴非线性存储器,兼具记忆和逻辑运算的功能,忆阻器与生物大脑的神经突触类似,是一种极具潜力替代当前计算系统的电子材料。简述了忆阻器的基本原理与特性、忆阻器在模拟突触可塑性方面的研究现状和忆阻器材料在人工神经突触应用方面的最新研究进展,并展望了忆阻器材料在人工神经突触研究中的发展趋势。 展开更多
关键词 非线性存储器 忆阻器 人工神经突触 突触可塑性
Identification of protein targets for the antidepressant effects of Kai-Xin-San in Chinese medicine using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation 预览
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作者 Xian-Zhe Dong Dong-Xiao Wang +3 位作者 Tian-Yi Zhang Xu Liu Ping Liu Yuan Hu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期302-310,共9页
Kai-Xin-San consists of Ginseng Radix, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria at a ratio of 3:3:2:2. Kai-Xin-San has been widely used for the treatment of emotional disorders in China. However, no studi... Kai-Xin-San consists of Ginseng Radix, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria at a ratio of 3:3:2:2. Kai-Xin-San has been widely used for the treatment of emotional disorders in China. However, no studies have identified the key proteins implicated in response to Kai-Xin-San treatment. In this study, rat models of chronic mild stress were established using different stress methods over 28 days. After 14 days of stress stimulation, rats received daily intragastric administrations of 600 mg/kg Kai-Xin-San. The sucrose preference test was used to determine depression-like behavior in rats, while isobaric tags were used for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomics to identify altered proteins following Kai-Xin-San treatment. Kai-Xin-San treatment for 2 weeks noticeably improved depression-like behaviors in rats with chronic mild stress. We identified 33 differentially expressed proteins: 7 were upregulated and 26 were downregulated. Functional analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins participate in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurogenesis. Our results indicate that Kai-Xin-San has an important role in regulating the key node proteins in the synaptic signaling network, and are helpful to better understand the mechanism of the antidepressive effects of Kai-Xin-San and to provide objective theoretical support for its clinical application. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Research from the Chinese PLA General Hospital(approval No. X5-2016-07) on March 5, 2016. 展开更多
关键词 BRAIN-DERIVED neurotrophic factor signal pathway depression ISOBARIC tags for RELATIVE and absolute quantitation Kai-Xin-San neurogenesis protein network proteomics analysis synaptic plasticity traditional Chinese medicine
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类脑机的思想与体系结构综述 预览
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作者 黄铁军 余肇飞 刘怡俊 《计算机研究与发展》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第6期1135-1148,共14页
经典计算机的理论边界在1936年就由图灵确定了,冯·诺依曼体系结构计算机也受限于图灵机模型.囿于神经形态器件的缺失,神经网络模型一直在经典计算机上运行.然而,冯·诺依曼体系结构与神经网络的异步并行结构及通信机制并不匹配... 经典计算机的理论边界在1936年就由图灵确定了,冯·诺依曼体系结构计算机也受限于图灵机模型.囿于神经形态器件的缺失,神经网络模型一直在经典计算机上运行.然而,冯·诺依曼体系结构与神经网络的异步并行结构及通信机制并不匹配,表现之一是功耗巨大,发展面向神经网络的体系结构,对于人工智能乃至一般意义上的信息处理都是重要方向.类脑机是仿照生物神经网络、采用神经形态器件构造的、以时空信息处理为特征的智能机器.类脑机的思想在计算机发明之前就提出了,研究开发实践也已经进行了30多年,多台类脑系统已经上线运行,其中SpiNNaker专注于类脑系统的体系结构研究,提出了一种行之有效的类脑方案.未来20年左右,预计模式动物大脑和人脑的精细解析将逐步完成,模拟生物神经元和神经突触信息处理功能的神经形态器件及集成工艺将逐步成熟,结构逼近大脑、性能远超大脑的类脑机有望实现.类脑机像生物大脑一样都是脉冲神经网络,神经形态器件具有真正的随机性,因此类脑机具备丰富的非线性动力学行为.已证明任何图灵机均可由脉冲神经网络构造出来,类脑机在理论上是否能够超越图灵机,是需要突破的一个重大问题. 展开更多
关键词 类脑机 脉冲神经网络 神经形态计算 图灵机 突触可塑性
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艾灸对快速老化小鼠海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响 预览
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作者 林瑶 左滢竹 +1 位作者 哈略 赵百孝 《世界中医药》 CAS 2019年第5期1149-1152,共4页
目的:探究艾灸对快速老化小鼠(SAMP8)海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响。方法:将12只6个月龄雄性SAMP8小鼠随机分为模型组和艾灸组。另以6只同月龄雄性正常老化小鼠(SAMR1)作为空白组。空白组、模型组小鼠每天常规抓取并用固定器固定... 目的:探究艾灸对快速老化小鼠(SAMP8)海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响。方法:将12只6个月龄雄性SAMP8小鼠随机分为模型组和艾灸组。另以6只同月龄雄性正常老化小鼠(SAMR1)作为空白组。空白组、模型组小鼠每天常规抓取并用固定器固定,不予其他处理;艾灸组小鼠釆用相同抓取并固定后,用艾条灸其关元穴。各组小鼠干预时间为20 min/d,6 d/周,共干预6周。6周后取材,用Western-blot法检测各组小鼠海马突触素(SYN)、脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、酪氨酸激酶受体B(Trk B)及磷酸化Trk B(p-Trk B)的表达。结果:与空白组比较,模型组小鼠海马内SYN、BDNF、p-Trk B表达显著下降( P <0.05)。与模型组比较,艾灸组小鼠海马内SYN、BDNF、p-Trk B表达显著上升( P <0.05)。3组小鼠海马Trk B表达水平差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论:艾灸干预能够通过影响SAMP8小鼠海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白的表达起到抗衰老的作用,且该作用可能经由BDNF/Trk B通路实现。 展开更多
关键词 阿尔茨海默病 艾灸 BDNF/Trk B通路 快速老化小鼠 脑源性神经营养因子 突触 突触可塑性 突触素
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Memory consolidation during sleep and adult hippocampal neurogenesis 预览
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作者 Iyo Koyanagi Katherine G. Akers +3 位作者 Pablo Vergara Sakthivel Srinivasan Takeshi Sakurai Masanori Sakaguchi 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期20-23,共4页
关键词 神经原 成年人 睡觉 记忆 发生期 海马 祖先 ing
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基于二维材料MXene的仿神经突触忆阻器的制备和长/短时程突触可塑性的实现 预览
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作者 陈义豪 徐威 +11 位作者 王钰琪 万相 李岳峰 梁定康 陆立群 刘鑫伟 连晓娟 胡二涛 郭宇锋 许剑光 童祎 肖建 《物理学报》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期245-250,共6页
兼具长时程可塑性与短时程可塑性的电子突触被认为是类脑计算系统的重要基础.将一种新型二维材料MXene应用到忆阻器中,制备了基于Cu/MXene/SiO2/W的仿神经突触忆阻器.结果表明, Cu/MXene/SiO2/W忆阻器成功实现了稳定的双极性模拟阻态切... 兼具长时程可塑性与短时程可塑性的电子突触被认为是类脑计算系统的重要基础.将一种新型二维材料MXene应用到忆阻器中,制备了基于Cu/MXene/SiO2/W的仿神经突触忆阻器.结果表明, Cu/MXene/SiO2/W忆阻器成功实现了稳定的双极性模拟阻态切换,同时成功模拟了生物突触短时程可塑性的双脉冲易化功能和长时程可塑性的长期增强/抑制行为,其中双脉冲易化的易化指数与脉冲间隔时间相关. Cu/MXene/SiO2/W忆阻器的突触仿生特性,归功于MXene辅助的Cu离子电导丝形成与破灭的类突触响应机理.由于Cu/MXene/SiO2/W忆阻器兼具长时程可塑性与短时程可塑性,其在突触仿生电子学和类脑智能领域将会具有巨大的应用前景. 展开更多
关键词 MXene 忆阻器 离子扩散 突触可塑性
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原发性肌张力障碍发病机制的研究进展 预览
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作者 樊如梦 胡兴越 《世界最新医学信息文摘(电子版)》 2019年第35期67-68,70共3页
原发性肌张力障碍(primary dystonia)是一种没有其他可能的获得性病因的运动障碍疾病,特点为不自主、持续性肌肉收缩,引起扭曲和重复动作或异常姿势。近年来随着经颅磁刺激、脑深部电刺激等技术的运用,原发性肌张力障碍的病理生理机制... 原发性肌张力障碍(primary dystonia)是一种没有其他可能的获得性病因的运动障碍疾病,特点为不自主、持续性肌肉收缩,引起扭曲和重复动作或异常姿势。近年来随着经颅磁刺激、脑深部电刺激等技术的运用,原发性肌张力障碍的病理生理机制研究取得许多进展。本文对原发性肌张力障碍发病机制,特别是突触重塑异常的研究进展进行综述。 展开更多
关键词 肌张力障碍 发病机制 突触重塑
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抑郁状态下海马突触可塑性变化及相关机制 预览
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作者 连嘉惠 张治楠 +3 位作者 梁丽艳 黄芸 曲姗姗 黄泳 《医学综述》 2019年第13期2541-2547,共7页
抑郁症的发病率逐年升高,但其发病机制仍不明确。近年来研究发现,抑郁的发病与海马突触可塑性的改变密切相关。抑郁状态下,海马神经元丢失,表现为海马脑区萎缩。此外,海马突触可塑改变也较突出。一方面,慢性应激状态下,下丘脑-垂体-肾... 抑郁症的发病率逐年升高,但其发病机制仍不明确。近年来研究发现,抑郁的发病与海马突触可塑性的改变密切相关。抑郁状态下,海马神经元丢失,表现为海马脑区萎缩。此外,海马突触可塑改变也较突出。一方面,慢性应激状态下,下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴异常激活,糖皮质激素升高,导致海马萎缩,突触减少。另一方面,应激状态下神经营养因子减少,故其下游包括哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白通路在内的通路激活减少,突触功能受损。抑郁状态下的过度炎症反应也导致了突触蛋白的合成减少及结构损伤。此外,能量及代谢异常也参与了抑郁状态下的突触可塑性改变。慢性应激通过以上4个途径,影响海马突触可塑性,导致抑郁。近年来,一些治疗方法也以海马突触可塑性为治疗靶点,取得一定成效,为抑郁症的基础研究及临床治疗提供新思路。 展开更多
关键词 抑郁 海马 突触可塑性 下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴 神经营养因子 炎性因子 代谢异常
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