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Weed growth,herbicide efficacy,and rice productivity in dry seeded paddy field under different wheat stubble management methods 预览
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作者 Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq Abdul Khaliq +4 位作者 Qiang Sheng Amar Matloob Saddam Hussain Saba Fatima Zeshan Aslam 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期907-926,共20页
To ascertain the influence of wheat stubble management options and chemical weed control methods on weed growth and productivity of dry direct-seeded fine rice,a two years’field study was undertaken at the Agronomic ... To ascertain the influence of wheat stubble management options and chemical weed control methods on weed growth and productivity of dry direct-seeded fine rice,a two years’field study was undertaken at the Agronomic Research Farm,University of Agriculture,Faisalabad,Pakistan in 2013 and 2014.Different wheat stubble management methods,viz.,incorporation,burning and retention were executed during seed-bed preparation.While,herbicide treatments comprised of a weed check,weed free,pendimethalin followed by tank mixture of fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl,and bispyribac sodium followed by tank mixture of fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl.Results revealed that weed control efficacy of both herbicide treatments ranged from 84 to 94%.Herbicide treatments significantly reduced weed density(88–90%)and dry weight(86–88%),while improved the rice growth attributes compared with weed check.Application of bispyribac sodium followed by tank mixture of fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl in stubble retention recorded 226 and 273%increase in kernel yield over weedy check in 2013 and 2014,respectively.In stubble incorporation,pendimethalin followed by tank mixture of fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl was more effective in increasing(256–293%)rice yields over weedy check.Among different treatment combinations,the maximum net benefits(1 397.49–1 472.22 USD ha–1),net returns(636–700 USD ha–1),benefit cost ratio(1.77–1.83)and marginal rate of return(2 187–2 330%)were recorded with the application of bispyribac sodium followed by fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl in stubble retention.In crux,application of bispyribac sodium followed by tank mixture of fenoxaprop p-ethyl+ethoxysulfuron ethyl in stubble retention is efficient approach to control weeds,and get maximum rice productivity and net economic returns under dry seeded system. 展开更多
关键词 HERBICIDE mixture weedy check STUBBLE management WEEDS density and DRY weight DSR
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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3,3-Dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)butan-2-One Derivatives as Plant Growth Regulators
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作者 CAI Guangrong ZUO Guanqiang +1 位作者 ZHENG Dianfeng FENG Naijie 《高等学校化学研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期221-228,共8页
We synthesized nine novel triazole-compoimds and investigated their plant growth regulatory activity.Compoimd CGR3,with metlioxvacyl on 3-position of triazole ring,showed better activity,promoting root length not only... We synthesized nine novel triazole-compoimds and investigated their plant growth regulatory activity.Compoimd CGR3,with metlioxvacyl on 3-position of triazole ring,showed better activity,promoting root length not only for mungbean,but also tor wheat.Additionally,CGR3 changed the level of endogenous hormones in mungbean roots,the most obvious effect was the increase of IAA,being 4.9 times greater than that of the control at the 96th hour after treatment.Among the synthesized new 1,2,4-triazol derivatives,CGR3 could be applied as a new agrochemical,functioning as a root growth stimulant,which promotes primary root length,influences the levels of endogenous honnones(IAA,ABA and GA3)to play an important role in controlling the primary root development. 展开更多
关键词 1 2 4-TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES Plant growth regulatary activity ROOTS
Global, regional, and cladistic patterns of variation in climatic niche breadths in terrestrial elapid snakes
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作者 Long-Hui Lin Xia-Ming Zhu +2 位作者 Yu Du Meng-Chao Fang Xiang Ji 《动物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期1-9,共9页
We obtai ned geo-refere need occurre nee and climatic data from in dividual localities for 59 species of terrestrial elapid snakes, used phylogenetic generalized least squares regression to investigate spatial and cla... We obtai ned geo-refere need occurre nee and climatic data from in dividual localities for 59 species of terrestrial elapid snakes, used phylogenetic generalized least squares regression to investigate spatial and cladistic patter ns of variation in climatic niche breadths, and compared patter ns within and across regions and clades to see if they parallel or differ from each other. Specifically, we test (1) whether a species' climatic niche breadth on a given niche axis relates to its position along that axis, and to its climatic niche breadth on another niche axis, and (2) whether variation in niche breadths among species is explained by within-locality variation in climatic conditions or by among-locality variation. We found that:(1) there is an overall global patter n, and patter ns in individual regi ons or clades gen erally parallel each other and global patter ns;(2) species in wanner environments have narrower temperature niche breadths (TNBs);(3) precipitation niche breadth (PNB) and position are positively related;⑷ TNB and PNB are not related;and ⑸ within-locality variation in climatic conditions explains most variation in TNBs, whereas among-locality variation explains most variation in PNBs. Our results are consistent with those reported for lizards of the families Phrynosomatidae and Varanidae, con firm the importance of withi n-locality n iche breadth to species n iche breadth, and show a more im porta nt role of amon g-locality n iche breadth in affecting species niche breadth in terrestrial elapids than in lizards. 展开更多
关键词 climate ELAPIDAE NICHE BREADTH NICHE position NICHE variance precipitation temperature
Study on the Identification of Original Plant and Crude Herbs in Paris daliensis H. Li et V.G. Souku and Paris dulongensis H. Li et S. Kuritap 预览
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作者 Risha WEIZE Zhongjie HUANG +3 位作者 Jixiu SHEN Xuexue LI Zhengming YANG Yuan LIU 《药用植物研究(英文版)》 2019年第2期54-57,共4页
[Objectives] Via systematic comparative study on Paris daliensis and Paris dulongensis, the research aimed to provide test data for their character and microscopic identification.[Methods] Original plants, characters,... [Objectives] Via systematic comparative study on Paris daliensis and Paris dulongensis, the research aimed to provide test data for their character and microscopic identification.[Methods] Original plants, characters, microscopic identification of cross section and powder of rhizome were used.[Results] Microscopic characteristics of cross section and powder of rhizome were basically consistent with identification results of literature, and parenchyma cell of P. dulongensis had brown-red mass.[Conclusions] The research could provide reference basis for identification of authenticity and establishment of quality standards for original plants and medicinal materials of P. daliensis and P. dulongensis, and their further research and development. 展开更多
关键词 PARIS daliensis PARIS dulongensis Character IDENTIFICATION MICROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION
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Progress in Semi-arid Climate Change Studies in China 预览
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作者 Jianping HUANG Jieru MA +2 位作者 Xiaodan GUAN Yue LI Yongli HE 《大气科学进展:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期922-937,共16页
This article reviews recent progress in semi-arid climate change research in China.Results indicate that the areas of semiarid regions have increased rapidly during recent years in China,with an increase of 33%during ... This article reviews recent progress in semi-arid climate change research in China.Results indicate that the areas of semiarid regions have increased rapidly during recent years in China,with an increase of 33%during 1994-2008 compared to 1948-62.Studies have found that the expansion rate of semi-arid areas over China is nearly 10 times higher than that of arid and sub-humid areas,and is mainly transformed from sub-humid/humid regions.Meanwhile,the greatest warming during the past 100 years has been observed over semi-arid regions in China,and mainly induced by radiatively forced processes.The intensity of the regional temperature response over semi-arid regions has been amplified by land-atmosphere interactions and human activities.The decadal climate variation in semi-arid regions is modulated by oceanic oscillations,which induce land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts and affect the intensities of westerlies,planetary waves and blocking frequencies.In addition,the drier climates in semi-arid regions across China are also associated with the weakened East Asian summer monsoon in recent years.Moreover,dust aerosols in semi-arid regions may have altered precipitation by affecting the local energy and hydrological cycles.Finally,semi-arid regions in China are projected to continuously expand in the 21st century,which will increase the risk of desertification in the near future. 展开更多
关键词 SEMI-ARID REGIONS DRYING EXPANSION wanning dynamics
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Effects of redox potential on soil cadmium solubility: Insight into microbial community
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作者 Delong Meng Juan Li +8 位作者 Tianbo Liu Yongjun Liu Mingli Yan Jin Hu Xiaoqi Li Xueduan Liu Yili Liang Hongwei Liu Huaqun Yin 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期224-232,共9页
Understanding the role of microbes in the solubility of cadmium (Cd)is of fundamental importance for remediation of Cd toxicity.The present study aimed to identify the microbes that involved in regulating Cd solubilit... Understanding the role of microbes in the solubility of cadmium (Cd)is of fundamental importance for remediation of Cd toxicity.The present study aimed to identify the microbes that involved in regulating Cd solubility and to reveal possible mechanisms.Therefore, microbial communities were investigated through high-throughput sequencing approach,the molecular ecological network was constructed and metagenomes were predicted.Our results indicated that redox conditions affected both the solubility of soil Cd and the microbial communities.Anaerobic microbes,such as Anaerolineaceae,did not only play important roles in shaping the microbial community in soils,but might also be involved in regulating the Cd solubility.Two possible mechanisms that how Anaerolineaceae involved in Cd solubility are (1)Anaerolineaceae are important organic matter degraders under anoxic conditions and (2)Anaerolineaceae can co-exist with methane metabolism microbes,while methane metabolism promotes the precipitation of soluble Cd.Thus,application of Anaerolineaceae in bioremediation of soil Cadmium contamination is a potential approach.The study provided a novel insight into the role of microbial community in the regulation of Cd solubility under different redox conditions,and suggested a potential approach for the remediation of soil Cd contamination. 展开更多
关键词 Cd SOLUBILITY Redox potential MICROBIAL community Molecular ECOLOGY networks (MENs) Anaerolineaceae
Phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the dwarf mutant m34 in maize 预览
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作者 LI Jie-ping Soomro Ayaz Ali +3 位作者 XIAO Gui CHEN Fan-jun YUAN Li-xing GU Ri-liang 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期948-957,共10页
Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits associated with yield in maize.In this study,a gibberellins(GA)-insensitive dwarf mutant,m34,was screened from inbred line Ye478 by treatment with the chemica... Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits associated with yield in maize.In this study,a gibberellins(GA)-insensitive dwarf mutant,m34,was screened from inbred line Ye478 by treatment with the chemical mutagen ethylmethanesulfonate(EMS).Compared to Ye478,m34 showed a dwarf phenotype with shorter internodes,and smaller leaf length and width,but with similar leaf number.Furthermore,m34 exhibited smaller guard cells in internodes than Ye478,suggesting that smaller cells might contribute to its dwarf phenotype.Genetic analysis indicated that the m34 dwarf phenotype was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene.An F2 population derived from a cross between m34 and B73 was used for mutational gene cloning and this gene was mapped to a chromosome region between umc2189 and umc1553 in chromosome 1 bin1.10,which harbored a previously identified dwarf gene Zm VP8.Sequencing analysis showed a nucleotide substitution(G1606 to A1606)in the sixth exon of ZmVP8,which resulted in an amino acid change(E531 to K531)from Ye478 to m34.This amino acid change resulted in anα-helix changing to aβ-sheet in the secondary protein structure and the‘SPEC’domain changed to a‘BOT1NT’domain in the tertiary protein structure.Taken together,these results suggested that m34 is a novel allelic mutant originally derived from Ye478 that is useful for further ZmVP8 functional analysis in maize. 展开更多
关键词 DWARF PLANT HEIGHT GA APPLICATION ZmVP8 MAIZE
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Accumulation of glycolipids in wheat grain and their role in hardness during grain development 预览
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作者 Haixia Qin Dongyun Ma +5 位作者 Xin Huang Jie Zhang Wan Sun Gege Hou Chenyang Wang Tiancai Guo 《作物学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期19-29,共11页
Grain hardness is an important parameter for wheat quality.To understand the role of glycolipids in the formation of grain hardness,the glycolipid contents in wholegrain wheat flour and the starch granule surfaces of ... Grain hardness is an important parameter for wheat quality.To understand the role of glycolipids in the formation of grain hardness,the glycolipid contents in wholegrain wheat flour and the starch granule surfaces of oven-dried and freeze-dried hard and soft wheat grain were analyzed.Changes in endosperm structure and amyloplast membrane integrity during grain development were also examined by electron microscopy.The monogalactosyldigylcerol(MGDG)and digalactosyldigylcerol(DGDG)contents of the starch surface were significantly higher in soft wheat than in hard wheat,regardless of the drying method or developmental stage.Throughout grain development,MGDG content was significantly higher in the starch surface of freeze-dried hard wheat than in the starch surface of oven-dried hard wheat.In contrast,the MGDG content of the starch surface was significantly higher in freeze-dried soft grain at 14 and 35 days after anthesis.No significant difference was observed in puroindoline protein(PIN)accumulation in wholegrain flour from wheat that was dried using the two methods,whereas PIN accumulation on the starch surface of freeze-dried grain was lower than that on the starch surface of oven-dried grain.The gap between the amyloplast membrane and starch granules was larger in hard wheat than in soft wheat,as shown by transmission electron microscopy.For the same wheat cultivar,this gap was larger for oven-dried than for freeze-dried grain.The content of polar lipids in the starch surface was closely related to grain hardness,and the breakdown of the amyloplast membrane may determine the location of polar lipids on the starch surface. 展开更多
关键词 Amyloplast membrane ENDOSPERM microstructure Grain HARDNESS POLAR LIPID Wheat
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Genome-wide identification of loci affecting seed glucosinolate contents in Brassica napus L.^FA
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作者 Dayong Wei Yixin Cui +6 位作者 Jiaqin Mei Lunwen Qian Kun Lu Zhi-Min Wang Jiana Li Qinglin Tang Wei Qian 《植物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期611-623,共13页
Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites that act as chemical defense agents against pests.However,the presence of high levels of glucosinolates severely diminishes the nutritional value of seed mea... Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites that act as chemical defense agents against pests.However,the presence of high levels of glucosinolates severely diminishes the nutritional value of seed meals made from rapeseed(Brassica napus L.).To identify the loci affecting seed glucosinolate cont ent(SGC),we con ducted genome-wide resequencing in a population of 307 diverse B.napus accessions from the three B.napus ecotype groups,namely,spring,winter,and semi-winter.These resequencing data were used for a genome-wide association study(GWAS)to identify the loci affecting SGC.In the three ecotype groups,four comm on and four ecotype-specific haplotype blocks(HBs)were significantly associated with SGC.To identify candidate genes controlling SGC,transcriptome analysis was carried out in 36 accessions showing extreme SGC values.Analyses of haplotypes,genomic variation,and candidate gene expression pointed to five and three candidate genes in the common and spring group-specific HBs,respectively.Our expression analyses dem on strated that additive effects of the three candidate genes in the spring group-specific HB play important roles in the SGC of B.napus. 展开更多
关键词 GLUCOSINOLATES are AMINO defense agents against group-specific HB
Three new species of genus Homoneura from Qinling Mountains, China(Diptera:Lauxaniidae)
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作者 Mengjing Zhang Xuefeng Gao Li Shi 《动物分类学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第2期146-157,共12页
Three species from Qinling Mountains are described as new to science: Homoneura(Homoneura) gaotangensis Gao & Shi sp. nov. from bistriata-group, H.(H.) xunyangensis Gao& Shi sp. nov. from laticosta-group, H.(H... Three species from Qinling Mountains are described as new to science: Homoneura(Homoneura) gaotangensis Gao & Shi sp. nov. from bistriata-group, H.(H.) xunyangensis Gao& Shi sp. nov. from laticosta-group, H.(H.) dorsocuspidata Gao & Shi sp. nov. from singularisgroup. Keys to species of its species group are provided, respectively. 展开更多
关键词 Homoneura(Homoneura) Homoneurinae QINLING MOUNTAINS SPECIES group
Integrating transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of photoperiodsensitive in near isogenic maize line under long-day conditions 预览
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作者 SONG Xiao-heng TIAN Lei +6 位作者 WANG Shun-xi ZHOU Jin-long ZHANG Jun CHEN Zan WU Liu-ji KU Li-xia CHEN Yan-hui 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1211-1221,共11页
As a short-day plant species, maize requires an optimal photoperiod for inducing reproductive growth. However, there is a lack of information regarding photoperiod-induced changes in maize mRNA and protein levels. In ... As a short-day plant species, maize requires an optimal photoperiod for inducing reproductive growth. However, there is a lack of information regarding photoperiod-induced changes in maize mRNA and protein levels. In this study, a photoperiod-insensitive maize inbred line and its near isogenic photoperiod-sensitive line were used. By integrating RNAbased transcriptomic and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS-based proteomic approaches, we generated a comprehensive inventory of the transcripts and proteins with altered abundances in response to a long photoperiod(LP) during growth stage transitions. We detected 22 000 transcripts in RNA-sequence runs and 5 259 proteins from an iTRAQ-based analysis. A weak correlation between mRNA-and protein-level changes was observed, suggesting the LP-induced transition between maize growth stages is largely regulated post-transcriptionally. Differentially expressed genes influenced by LP conditions were associated with several regulatory processes in both maize inbred lines, especially phosphate ion transport and the circadian rhythm. Additionally, 31 transcripts and six proteins related to photoperiodic flowering in maize were identified by comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data. This transcriptomic and proteomic analysis represents the first comprehensive and comparative study of gene/protein-level changes occurring in photoperiod-sensitive and-insensitive maize inbred lines during growth stage transitions under LP conditions. 展开更多
关键词 development transition long PHOTOPERIOD NEAR isogenic LINE proteome transcriptome
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Residue management induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under different tillage practices in the North China Plain 预览
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作者 PU Chao KAN Zheng-rong +4 位作者 LIU Peng MA Shou-tian QI Jian-ying ZHAO Xin ZHANG Hai-lin 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1337-1347,共11页
Crop residue retention has been considered a practicable strategy to improve soil organic carbon(SOC)and total nitrogen(TN),but the effectiveness of residue retention might be different under varied tillage practices.... Crop residue retention has been considered a practicable strategy to improve soil organic carbon(SOC)and total nitrogen(TN),but the effectiveness of residue retention might be different under varied tillage practices.To evaluate the effects of residue management on the distribution and stocks of SOC and TN under different tillage practices,a bifactorial experiment with three levels for tillage practices(no-tillage,rotary tillage,and conventional tillage)and two levels for residue managements(residue retention and residue removal)was conducted in the North China Plain(NCP).Results showed that after a short experimental duration(3–4 years),concentrations of SOC and TN in the 0–10 cm layer were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage,no matter whether crop residues were retained or not.Residue retention increased SOC and TN concentrations in the upper layers of soil to some degree for all tillage practices,as compared with residue removal,with the greatest increment of SOC concentration occurred in the 0–10 cm layer under rotary tillage,but in the 10–30 cm layer under conventional tillage.The stocks of SOC in the 0–50 cm depth increased from 49.89 Mg ha–1 with residue removal to 53.03 Mg ha–1 with residue retention.However,no-tillage did not increase SOC stock to a depth of 50 cm relative to conventional tillage,and increased only by 5.35%as compared with rotary tillage.Thus,residue retention may contribute more towards SOC sequestration than no-tillage.Furthermore,the combination between residue retention and no-tillage has the greatest advantage in enhancing SOC and TN in the NCP region. 展开更多
关键词 NO-TILLAGE RESIDUE RETENTION RESIDUE removal STRATIFICATION ratio SOC STOCK total nitrogen STOCK
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Different Fertilization Modes of Sugarcane in Latosolic Red Soil of Guangxi 预览
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作者 Shixie MENG Xiaomin WANG +3 位作者 Guosheng HUANG Yanfei LU Pingxi HUANG Guoying LU 《亚洲农业研究:英文版》 2019年第4期77-79,83共4页
[Objectives] This study aimed to compare the effects of water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation modes and traditional fertilization mode on growth,yield,production costs and economic benefit of sugarcane in latoso... [Objectives] This study aimed to compare the effects of water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation modes and traditional fertilization mode on growth,yield,production costs and economic benefit of sugarcane in latosolic red soil of Guangxi. [Methods]A field test was conducted. [Results] The agronomic traits and comprehensive economic benefit of sugarcane under the water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation modes were superior to those under the traditional fertilization mode. Among them,the comprehensive economic benefit of sugarcane with special granular fertilizer as the base fertilizer and water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation as topdressing were the highest,increased by 15 813 kg/ha,an increase of 15. 8%. Considering the cost input,the comprehensive economic benefit increased by 5 676 yuan/ha. [Conclusions]Taking the production cost,economic benefit and input-output ratio into account,it is recommended to promote the application of water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation mode in bases with water and fertilizer equipment conditions. 展开更多
关键词 Latosolic red soil FERTILIZATION mode Water-fertilizer integration DRIP irrigation
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Population Genomic Analysis and De Novo Assembly Reveal the Origin of Weedy Rice as an Evolutionary Game
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作者 Jian Sun Dianrong Ma +18 位作者 Liang Tang Minghui Zhao Guangchen Zhangh Wenjia Wang Jiayu Song Xiang Li Zimeng Liu Wenxing Zhang Quan Xu Yuncheng Zhou Jianzhong Wu Toshio Yamamoto Fei Dai Yan Lei Song Li Gang Zhou Hongkun Zheng Zhengjin Xu Wenfu Chen 《分子植物:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期632-647,共16页
Crop weediness,especially that of weedy rice(Oryza sativa f.spontanea),remains mysterious.Weedy rice possesses robust ecological adaptability;however,how this strain originated and gradually formed proprietary genetic... Crop weediness,especially that of weedy rice(Oryza sativa f.spontanea),remains mysterious.Weedy rice possesses robust ecological adaptability;however,how this strain originated and gradually formed proprietary genetic features remains unclear?Here,we demonstrate that weedy rice at Asian high latitudes(WRAH)is phylogenetically well defined and possesses unselected genomic characteristics in many divergence regions between weedy and cultivated rice.We also identified novel quantitative trait loci underlying weedy-specific traits,and revealed that a genome block on the end of chromosome 1 is associated with rice weediness.To identify the genomic modifications underlying weedy rice evolution,we generated the first de novo assembly of a high-quality weedy rice genome(WR04-6),and conducted a comparative genomics study between WR04-6 with other rice reference genomes.Multiple lines of evidence,including the results of demographic scenario comparisons,suggest that differentiation between weedy rice and cultivated rice was initiated by genetic improvement of cultivated rice and that the essence of weediness arose through semi-domestication.A plant height model further implied that the origin of WRAH can be modeled as an evolutionary game and indicated that strategy-based selection driven by fitness shaped its genomic diversity. 展开更多
关键词 weedy rice POPULATION GENOMICS de novo assembly COMPARATIVE GENOMICS EVOLUTIONARY GAME
Genetic mapping and expressivity of a wheat multi-pistil gene in mutant 12TP 预览
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作者 ZHU Xin-xin NI Yong-jing +3 位作者 HE Rui-shi JIANG Yu-mei LI Qiao-yun NIU Ji-shan 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期532-538,共7页
We identified a wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) multi-pistil mutant from an F2 breeding population in 2012, named 12 TP(three pistils in one floret). Genetic analysis showed that one dominant gene locus controlled the mul... We identified a wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) multi-pistil mutant from an F2 breeding population in 2012, named 12 TP(three pistils in one floret). Genetic analysis showed that one dominant gene locus controlled the multi-pistil trait. Using homozygous normal and multi-pistil lines(near-isogenic lines;NILs) derived from the original mutant 12 TP, a simple sequence repeat(SSR) marker assay located the 12 TP locus on chromosome arm 2 DL. Four SSR markers were linked to 12 TP and their order was Xcfd233→Xcfd62-12 TP→Xwmc41→Xcfd168 at 15.85, 10.47, 2.89, and 10.37 cM, respectively. The average genetic expressivity of the trait ‘three pistils in one floret’ was more than 98% in seven homozygous 12 TP lines;however, the average genetic expressivity in heterozygous F1 plants was about 49%. Thus, the 12 TP is a semi-dominant gene locus, which differ from all previously reported multi-pistil mutants. Mutant 12 TP is a new useful germplasm for study of wheat floral development and for breeding of high yield wheat. 展开更多
关键词 WHEAT multi-pistil MUTANT expressivity MAPPING
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Estimates on nitrogen uptake in the subsequent wheat by aboveground and root residue and rhizodeposition of using peanut labeled with 15N isotope on the North China Plain 预览
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作者 ZHANG Kai ZHAO Jie +5 位作者 WANG Xi-quan XU He-shui ZANG Hua-dong LIU Jing-na HU Yue-gao ZENG Zhao-hai 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期571-579,共9页
Leguminous crops play a vital role in enhancing crop yield and improving soil fertility. Therefore, it can be used as an organic N source for improving soil fertility. The purpose of this study was to(i) quantify the ... Leguminous crops play a vital role in enhancing crop yield and improving soil fertility. Therefore, it can be used as an organic N source for improving soil fertility. The purpose of this study was to(i) quantify the amounts of N derived from rhizodeposition, root and above-ground biomass of peanut residue in comparison with wheat and(ii) estimate the effect of the residual N on the wheat-growing season in the subsequent year. The plants of peanut and wheat were stem fed with 15 N urea using the cotton-wick method at the Wuqiao Station of China Agricultural University in 2014. The experiment consisted of four residue-returning strategies in a randomized complete-block design:(i) no return of crop residue(CR0);(ii) return of above-ground biomass of peanut crop(CR1);(iii) return of peanut root biomass(CR2);and(iv) return of all residue of the whole peanut plant(CR3). The 31.5 and 21% of the labeled 15 N isotope were accumulated in the above-ground tissues(leaves and stems) of peanuts and wheat, respectively. N rhizodeposition of peanuts and wheat accounted for 14.91 and 3.61% of the BG15 N, respectively. The 15 N from the below-ground 15 N-labeled of peanuts were supplied 11.3, 5.9, 13.5, and 6.1% of in the CR0, CR1, CR2, and CR3 treatments, respectively. Peanut straw contributes a significant proportion of N to the soil through the decomposition of plant residues and N rhizodeposition. With the current production level on the NCP, it is estimated that peanut straw can potentially replace 104 500 tons of synthetic N fertilizer per year. The inclusion of peanut in rotation with cereal can significantly reduce the use of N fertilizer and enhance the system sustainability. 展开更多
关键词 CROPPING system CROP RESIDUES rhizodeposition 15N LABELING
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Dek42 encodes an RNA-binding protein that affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing and maize kernel development^FA
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作者 Yi Zuo Fan Feng +1 位作者 Weiwei Qi Rentao Song 《植物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期728-748,共21页
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. However, the functions of RBPs in plants remain poorly understood. Maize kernel mutant dek42 has small defective kernels and ... RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. However, the functions of RBPs in plants remain poorly understood. Maize kernel mutant dek42 has small defective kernels and lethal seedlings. Dek42 was cloned by Mutator tag isolation and further confirmed by an independent mutant allele and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 materials. Dek42 encodes an RRM_RBM48 type RNA-binding protein that localizes to the nucleus. Dek42 is constitutively expressed in various maize tissues. The dek42 mutation caused a significant reduction in the accumulation of DEK42 protein in mutant kernels. RNA-seq analysis showed that the dek42 mutation significantly disturbed the expression of thousands of genes during maize kernel development. Sequence analysis also showed that the dek42 mutation significantly changed alternative splicing in expressed genes, which were especially enriched for the U12-type intron-retained type. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified SF3a1 as a DEK42-interacting protein. DEK42 also interacts with the spliceosome component U1-70K. These results suggested that DEK42 participates in the regulation of pre-messenger RNA splicing through its interaction with other spliceosome components. This study showed the function of a newly identified RBP and provided insights into alternative splicing regulation during maize kernel development. 展开更多
关键词 Dek42 ENCODES an RNA-BINDING protein that AFFECTS ALTERNATIVE pre-mRNA splicing and MAIZE kernel development^FA Dek42 ENCODES
Lanthanum chloride improves maize grain yield by promoting photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidants enzymes and endogenous hormone at reproductive stages
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作者 Wenwen Cui Muhammad Kamran +3 位作者 Quanhao Song Bingyun Zuo Zhikuan Jia Qingfang Han 《中国稀土学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期781-790,共10页
Despite an increase in application spectrum of rare earth elements in agriculture, all studies show that the suitable accumulation of rare earth elements can improve the crop seedling growth, but there is little resea... Despite an increase in application spectrum of rare earth elements in agriculture, all studies show that the suitable accumulation of rare earth elements can improve the crop seedling growth, but there is little research about REEs on physiological mechanisms of crops at reproductive stages. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the possible potential benefits of lanthanum chloride(LaCl3) on the senescence and grain yield responses of maize. In this study, maize seeds were pre-treated by soaking with LaCl3 at the concentrations of 0(CK), 400(LC1), 800(LC2) and 1200(LC3) μmol/L, to evaluate its effect on the green leaf area, chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis, antioxidants, endogenous hormones in the later crop growth stages. The results show that LC1 and LC2 treatments evidently increase green leaf area, above ground dry biomass, accompanied by a distinct increase in the chlorophyll contents, and photo synthetic capacity, which promote the ear characteristics and grain yield of maize. In addition, LC1 and LC2 treatments simultaneously increase the activities of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxidases, soluble protein, and enhanced levels of auxin, gibberellin and zeatin,following a dose-response tendency. Themalondialdehyde and abscisic acid levels transiently increase with the progression in the growth stage of the crop but are markedly decreased at LC1 and LC2 treatments, while LC3 treatment has no significant effect on malondialdehyde and even accelerates the accumulation of abscisic acid in maize leaves. Our data suggest that seed priming with LaCl3 at a suitable concentration range(400-800 μmol/L) can prolong the functional periods of leaves, increase photosynthetic capacity, enhance antioxidant activity, and alter endogenous hormone levels at reproductive stages, resulting in delaying leaf senescence rate and increasing yield. However, the moderate concentration of LaCl3 for maize is LC2(800 μmol/L), and can be effectively used to improve grain yield of maize. 展开更多
关键词 Seed PRIMING LACL3 MAIZE Photosynthesis ANTIOXIDANTS Endogenous HORMONES
Editing of Rice Isoamylase Gene ISA1 Provides Insights into Its Function in Starch Formation 预览
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作者 CHAO Shufen CAI Yicong +7 位作者 FENG Baobing JIAO Guiai SHENG Zhonghua LUO Ju TANG Shaoqing WANG Jianlong HU Peisong WEI Xiangjin 《水稻科学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第2期77-87,共11页
Isoamylase 1 (ISA1) is an isoamylase-type debranching enzyme which plays a predominant role in amylopectin synthesis. In this study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associ... Isoamylase 1 (ISA1) is an isoamylase-type debranching enzyme which plays a predominant role in amylopectin synthesis. In this study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system was used to edit ISA1 gene in rice via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We identified 36 genetic edited lines from 55 T0 transgenic events, and classified the mutation forms into 7 types. Of those, two homozygous mutants, cr-isa1-1 (type 1, with an adenine insertion) and cr-isa1-2 (type 3, with a cytosine deletion) were selected for further analysis. Seed sizes of both cr-isa1-1 and cr-isa1-2 were affected, and the two mutants also displayed a shrunken endosperm with significantly lower grain weight. Electron microscopy analysis showed that abnormal starch granules and amyloplasts were found in cr-isa1-1 and cr-isa1-2 endosperm cells. The contents of total starch, amylose and amylopectin in the endosperm of the cr-isa1 mutants were significantly reduced, whereas sugar content and starch gel consistency were observably increased compared to the wild-type. The gelatinization temperature and starch chain length distributions of the cr-isa1 mutants were also altered. Moreover, transcript levels of most starch synthesis-related genes were significantly lower in cr-isa1 mutants. In conclusion, the results indicated that gene edition of ISA1 affected starch synthesis and endosperm development, and brought potential implications for rice quality breeding. 展开更多
关键词 ISA1 RICE STARCH BIOSYNTHESIS STARCH GRANULE PHYSICOCHEMICAL property CRISPR Cas9
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Morphological diversity and correlation analysis of phenotypes and quality traits of proso millet(Panicum miliaceum L.)core collections 预览
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作者 ZHANG Da-zhong Rabia Begum Panhwar +6 位作者 LIU Jia-jia GONG Xiang-wei LIANG Ji-bao LIU Min-xuan LU Ping GAO Xiao-li FENG Bai-li 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期958-969,共12页
Genetic diversity and comprehensive performance are the basis for the discovery and efficient use of proso millet(Panicum miliaceum L.) core collections. In this study, 386 proso millet core collections were used as m... Genetic diversity and comprehensive performance are the basis for the discovery and efficient use of proso millet(Panicum miliaceum L.) core collections. In this study, 386 proso millet core collections were used as materials to observe inflorescence color, leaf phase, inflorescence density, axis shape, branched spike length, panicle type, trichome, measured area of the top3 leaves, and chlorophyll content of the top3 leaves at filling stage. These core collections were also used to record growth period, plant height, diameter of main stem, plant tiller number, branch number, panicle length, panicle number per plant, and panicle weight per plant at the maturation stage. Starch, fat, protein, and yellow pigment contents in the grain and 1 000-seed weight were also measured after harvest. Then, quantitative traits were used for diversity analysis and comprehensive evaluation of each collection. Correlations between all traits were also analyzed. Results showed that among the 8 quality traits, the Shannon index(H′) of hull color was the highest(1.588) followed by the H′ of inflorescence density(0.984). However, inflorescence color and axis shape were lower. The H′ of 16 quantitative traits were significantly higher than the quality traits with the following traits having the highest indices: fat content(2.092), 1 000-seed weight(2.073), top3 leaves area(2.070), main stem diameter(2.056), and plant height(2.052). Furthermore, all other traits had a diversity higher than 1.900. After a comprehensive evaluation of phenotypic traits, plant height, diameter of main stem, plant tiller number, leaf area of top3 leaves, and 1 000-seed weight were the biggest contributors to the principal components. Six high-fat and high-protein cultivars, including Nuoshu, A75-2, Zhiduoaosizhi, Panlonghuangmi, Xiaobaishu, and Xiaohongshu were also screened. Correlations between the quantitative traits were significant, including the correlation between quality traits and quantitative traits. In conclusion, the core collections can be 展开更多
关键词 proso MILLET PHENOTYPIC TRAITS quality DIVERSITY correlation evaluation
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