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The Effect of Wastewater Treatment Plants on Retainment of Plastic Microparticles to Enhance Water Quality—A Review 认领
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作者 Rana Zeeshan Habib Ruwaya Al Kendi Thies Thiemann 《环境保护(英文)》 2021年第3期161-195,共35页
Microplastics, plastic pieces of ≤5 mm in size, are ubiquitous in ther environment and can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This manuscript reviews the literature on the fate of microplastics in w... Microplastics, plastic pieces of ≤5 mm in size, are ubiquitous in ther environment and can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This manuscript reviews the literature on the fate of microplastics in wastewater treatment and briefly highlights novel developments in the removal of microplastics from aqueous systems. 展开更多
关键词 Microplastics Nanoplastics Wastewater Treatment Plants Sludge Treatment Plastic Retainment
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Review of New Data in Physiotherapeutic Approach to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) 认领
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作者 Dimitris Pollatos Konstantinos Chandolias +2 位作者 Maria-Aikaterini Giordamni Anna Chalkia Eugenia Trevlaki 《生物科学与医学(英文)》 2021年第2期103-125,共23页
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal condition, with a high incidence in young active adolescents, as well as in other age groups. The multifactorial etiology of the syndrome makes the clini... Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal condition, with a high incidence in young active adolescents, as well as in other age groups. The multifactorial etiology of the syndrome makes the clinical evaluation and synthesis of an effective treatment plan particularly demanding and difficult. The absence of a specific clinical trial for the diagnosis or rejection of PFPS leads to the diagnosis of the syndrome through the careful rejection of other conditions with similar symptoms. Physiotherapy is based on the management and immediate treatment of the patient’s pain, by combining active and passive means of treatment and address the fear of exercise and movement. Interventions for the treatment of patellofemoral pain present positive short-term but not as encouraging long-term results. Therefore we are posed with an interesting question: what is the most effective treatment plan for the management of PFPS? The purpose of the review is to present the necessary and most up-to-date data for the identification, clinical evaluation and etiology of the syndrome as well as to compose in the form of guidelines (Guidelines) the basis for building an effective treatment plan for the treatment of PFPS. 展开更多
关键词 PFPS Physiotherapy Evaluation Physiotherapy Treatment Training Program
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鼻部超短波对儿童慢性鼻-鼻窦炎的治疗效果 认领
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作者 郑书希 《中国继续医学教育》 2021年第1期141-144,共4页
目的探究分析鼻部超短波治疗儿童慢性鼻-鼻窦炎的治疗效果。方法选取本院收治的共计200名慢性鼻-鼻窦炎小儿患者作为试验研究对象,将所有的患者按照电脑随机分配的方式分为对照组和观察组,其中对照组人数共计100名,在临床上采用常规传... 目的探究分析鼻部超短波治疗儿童慢性鼻-鼻窦炎的治疗效果。方法选取本院收治的共计200名慢性鼻-鼻窦炎小儿患者作为试验研究对象,将所有的患者按照电脑随机分配的方式分为对照组和观察组,其中对照组人数共计100名,在临床上采用常规传统治疗方式进行,观察组人数共计100名,在临床上主要采用鼻部超短波治疗方式进行。对比两组患者在整体的治疗效果,患者的满意度、患者术后的并发症发生情况等。结果患者在治疗完成之后,观察组的整体鼻-鼻窦炎治疗效果显著高于对照组,完全治愈的患者共计55名,部分治愈患者共计42名,治愈率达到了97%,而对照组患者完全治愈患者32名,部分治愈患者32名,治愈率为64%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),同时从观察组的治疗满意度以及术后并发症方面来看,观察组患者显著高于对照组,且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在当前阶段针对小儿鼻-鼻窦炎来说,通过实施有效的鼻部超短波方式相比于常规治疗方式具有更高的治疗价值,同时治疗安全性显著提升,降低了临床并发症的发生。 展开更多
关键词 鼻部超短波 治疗方式 鼻窦炎 小儿患者 对比分析 治疗效果
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Effect of thermomechanical cyclic quenching and tempering treatments on microstructure,mechanical and electrochemical properties of AISI 1345 steel 认领
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作者 Muhammad Arslan Hafeez Ameeq Farooq +1 位作者 Kaab Bin Tayyab and Muhammad Adnan Arshad 《矿物冶金与材料学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2021年第4期688-698,共11页
Thermomechanical cyclic quenching and tempering(TMCT)can strengthen steels through a grain size reduction mechanism.The effect of TMCT on microstructure,mechanical,and electrochemical properties of AISI 1345 steel was... Thermomechanical cyclic quenching and tempering(TMCT)can strengthen steels through a grain size reduction mechanism.The effect of TMCT on microstructure,mechanical,and electrochemical properties of AISI 1345 steel was investigated.Steel samples heated to 1050℃,rolled,quenched to room temperature,and subjected to various cyclic quenching and tempering heat treatments were named TMCT-1,TMCT-2,and TMCT-3 samples,respectively.Microstructure analysis revealed that microstructures of all the treated samples contained packets and blocks of well-refined lath-shaped martensite and retained austenite phases with varying grain sizes(2.8–7.9μm).Among all the tested samples,TMCT-3 sample offered an optimum combination of properties by showing an improvement of 40%in tensile strength and reduced 34%elongation compared with the non-treated sample.Nanoindentation results were in good agreement with mechanical tests as the TMCT-3 sample exhibited a 51%improvement in indentation hardness with almost identical reduced elastic modulus compared with the non-treated sample.The electrochemical properties were analyzed in 0.1 M NaHCO3 solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.As a result of TMCT,the minimum corrosion rate was 0.272 mm/a,which was twenty times less than that of the nontreated sample.The impedance results showed the barrier film mechanism,which was confirmed by the polarization results as the current density decreased. 展开更多
关键词 thermomechanical treatment cyclic heat-treatment NANOINDENTATION potentiodynamic polarization electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
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Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Invade the Tracheal Prominence: A Case Report and Literature Review 认领
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作者 Kaiwen He Haitao Huang +2 位作者 Shaomu Chen Yu Feng Haitao Ma 《临床医学病理报告(英文)》 2021年第1期8-16,共9页
<strong>Background: </strong>Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) refers to a salivary gland neoplasm. Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma that invades the tracheal prominence is a relatively rare tumor among thor... <strong>Background: </strong>Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) refers to a salivary gland neoplasm. Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma that invades the tracheal prominence is a relatively rare tumor among thoracic diseases.<strong> Objective: </strong>To explore the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and future development of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (TACC). <strong>Methods:</strong> With asymptomatic invasion of the tracheal prominence, a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma with asymptomatic invasion of the tracheal prominence was reported. The clinical management process and surgical methods were introduced, and related literature was reviewed and summarized. <strong>Results: </strong>The patient was admitted due to tracheal augmentation mass for half a month. Chest CT at admission displayed the soft tissue density shadow behind the tracheal augmentation process. After the completion of other examinations, tracheal tumor resection and tracheal reconstruction were performed. Postoperative routine pathology exhibited that it was TACC and without inguinal lymph node metastasis. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> TACC is a low-grade tracheal tumor with low incidence, delayed clinical manifestations and lack of specificity as well. CT and bronchoscopy are helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients. Meanwhile, radical surgical resection is the first choice of treatment. Adjuvant therapy can improve the therapeutic effect. Targeted immunotherapy is the developing direction of treatment. 展开更多
关键词 Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
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Clinical Evaluation after Introduction of Stem Cell Supernatant Biocell Shot 65 by Electroporation 认领
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作者 Ryusuke Suzuki Harue Suzuki +1 位作者 Maki Yokogawa Junichi Motohashi 《化妆品、皮肤病及应用期刊(英文)》 2021年第1期58-70,共13页
<strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Objectives</span></strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;">:</span><span "=""><span style=&q... <strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Objectives</span></strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;">:</span><span "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> The objective of this study is clinical evaluation after introduction of stem cell supernatant Biocell Shot 65 by electroporation. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Background:</span></b></span><span "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> There is a clinical report of psoriasis treatment by umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells, in which there was a beneficial result. These clinical results are the result of cord blood-derived cell growth factors. The umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell culture supernatant contains a high amount of TGF-</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">β</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, PDGA, etc., and promotes wound healing. In addition, we suppose </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">that the supernatant has the esthetic effect of improving skin condition, thus,</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> we planned to make a clinical evaluation. However, it is difficult to set judgement criteria, and human judgement tends to be subjective. Therefore, in this study, as a new clinical evaluator, we used an AI skin diagnostic device with learning function. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods:</span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> Stem cell culture supernatant Biocell Shot 65 was used as an introduction solution. After it was applied to the full faces of four patients, electroporation with BeBe pinocchio DM-5 SUPER DX Plus promoted infiltration deep in the keratinized layer. The patients were all </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">healthy women in their forties. This procedure was performed every two weeks</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> for three months. Wrinkles, fine lines around eyes, stains, pores, and 4V, </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">which is considered as one diagnostic criteria, were evaluated at baseline</span><span style="font-fami 展开更多
关键词 Clinical Evaluation Stem Cell Skin Treatment
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Adherence to Treatment by Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Monze Mission Hospital, Monze, Zambia 认领
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作者 Sanford Nyirongo Patricia Katowa Mukwato +1 位作者 Emmanuel Mwila Musenge Victoria Mwiinga Kalusopa 《护理学期刊(英文)》 2021年第3期184-203,共20页
<strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases and among the leading causes of disability, morbidity and mortality globally. The study assessed adhe... <strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases and among the leading causes of disability, morbidity and mortality globally. The study assessed adherence to treatment by type 2 DM patients aged 20 years and above at Monze Mission Hospital in Monze district, Zambia. Research questions: 1) What is the level of adherence to treatment by type 2 DM patients receiving care from Monze Mission Hospital? 2) What factors influence adherence to treatment by type 2 DM patients? <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted in 2017. It was a cross-sectional design. Simple random sampling method was used to select respondents and data was collected using a structured interview schedule. Data was entered and analyzed using the modified self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale with six scores, modified self-care management questionnaire and IBM<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><sup><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><span style="white-space:nowrap;">&#169;</span></span></sup> </span>Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Chi-Square was used to test associations between variables and binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. The Morisky Medication Adherence scale was interpreted as follows: patients who scored between 4 - 6 points on knowledge had high knowledge while those who scored between 1 - 3 points had low knowledge about the disease. <strong>Results: </strong>The sample size of the study was 138 respondents. The study showed, only 44.2% of respondents had good adherence to treatment as they scored above 4 using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Majority of the patients (55.6%) had knowledge about treatment despite 65.2% of respondents reported distance and financial challenges as hindrances to adherence. The study revealed a statistical association between adherence and knowledge of type 2 DM treatment. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed that poor adherence to treatment reduced as knowledge about DM increased. There 展开更多
关键词 ADHERENCE KNOWLEDGE LIFESTYLE Self-Management Support Treatment Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
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Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Epidemiological, Clinical, Para-Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects at the Tombouctou Hospital 认领
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作者 Souleymane Mariko Massama Konaté +12 位作者 Samba Sidibé Karamoko Kantako Charles Dara Djibril Kassogué Nouhoum Diallo Coumba A. Thiam Aniessa Kodio Mariam Sako Abdoul Karim Sacko Mamadou Diakité Souleymane Coulibaly Ilo Bella Diall Ichaka Menta 《心血管病(英文)》 2021年第3期167-180,共14页
<strong>Introduction:</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a heart failure whose etiology is still unknown. </span><span style="font... <strong>Introduction:</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a heart failure whose etiology is still unknown. </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The a</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">im</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">of work was to study peripartum cardiomyopathy in its epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspects at the Tombouctou hospital.</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods:</span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in the Medicine Department of the Timbuktu hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2019. It concerned patients who presented heart failure between the 8th month of pregnancy and the first 5 months postpartum.</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results:</span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">D</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">uring the study</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">,</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">23 patients were collected. Average age of the patients was 23.50 ± 3.50 years with extremes of 16 and 34 years. Incidence of Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) was 1/345 pregnancies. Average parity was 3.20 with extremes of 1 and 8. Symptoms appeared at postpartum with 87% of cases. A significant delay in diagnosis was observed. Global heart failure was the mode of decompensation with 70%. Electrocardiographic signs were mainly sinus tachycardia (87%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (83%). Cardiac ultrasound showed in all cases dilated cardiomyopathy and it was associated with thrombus in left ventricle cavity for three cases. Left ventricular ejection fraction was severely impaired in 70% of cases. Pulmonary hypertension was significant in 52%.</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 展开更多
关键词 Heart Failure CARDIOMYOPATHY PERIPARTUM Treatment
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Knowledge and Perceived Barriers towards Intermittent Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study 认领
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作者 Frank Bediako Agyei Gideon Dzando +3 位作者 Anthony B. Donyi Elisha A. Nonoh Rebecca Dordunu Catherine Konadu Opoku 《内科学期刊(英文)》 2021年第1期27-38,共12页
Background:<span> </span><span>Intermittent prevention of malaria is a key strategy adopted globally to ensure the wellbeing of pregnant women. By extension, these strategies enhance the healthy... Background:<span> </span><span>Intermittent prevention of malaria is a key strategy adopted globally to ensure the wellbeing of pregnant women. By extension, these strategies enhance the healthy development of the fetus. This study assesses the knowledge and practices of pregnant women towards intermittent malaria </span><span>prevention strategies in the Juaben Government Hospital of Ghana.</span><span> </span><span>Methods: A cross-sectional</span><span>,</span><span> quantitative</span><span>,</span><span> descriptive survey was conducted among 1</span><span>20 pregnant women at the antenatal clinic of the Juaben Government hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana using a simple random sampling technique in selecting the study participants. The participant response rate was 94.5%. Data w</span><span>ere</span><span> analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.</span><span> </span><span>Results:</span><span> </span><span>Majority (54.2%) of respondents were between 20</span><span> </span><span>-</span><span> </span><span>29 years of age. Majority of study respondents attended Antenatal visits in their first trimester of pregnancy. Majority (69.2%) have knowledge of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy, with about 70% of respondents stating these strategies were designed only for pregnant women. Only 37.5% of study respondents could rightly identify the chemoprophylaxis indicated for malaria prevention in pregnancy. Whereas majority (93.3%) of respondents owned insecticide-treated mosquito nets, only 63.3% utilized these nets for their purpose. Barriers to utilization of insecticide-treated nets include difficulty in setting up the nets (26.7%), using mosquito coils (10.8%), and feeling uncomfortable sleeping in the nets (36.7%). Barriers to taking malaria prophylaxis include distance to health facilities (28.3%), thoughts of not being sick with malaria (55.8%), using herbs (10.0%), and not being aware of the essence </span><span>of prophylaxis (7.5%). Conclusion: 展开更多
关键词 MALARIA Intermittent Prevention and Treatment (IPTp) Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) Antenatal Care Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine (SP)
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Ossified Subdural Chronic Hematoma: Two Cases Report and Literature Review 认领
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作者 K. Quenum O. H. Fatigba +3 位作者 O. Coulibaly Y. P. Houndje C. Tchegnonsi B. Quenum 《现代神经外科学进展(英文)》 2021年第1期29-33,共5页
Ossified subdural chronic hematoma (OSCH) is a rare disease that accounts 0.3% to 2% of subdural chronic hematoma which is common. The surgical management depends on his clinical expression. The aim of this study is t... Ossified subdural chronic hematoma (OSCH) is a rare disease that accounts 0.3% to 2% of subdural chronic hematoma which is common. The surgical management depends on his clinical expression. The aim of this study is to highlight the surgical procedure because the management of this type of lesion has no consensus. The authors reported two cases of OSCH which were successfully excised with good outcomes. Taking care during the procedure of dissection from parenchyma is the key for this surgery. 展开更多
关键词 Ossified Subdural Chronic Hematoma Calcified Subdural Chronic Hematoma Chronic Hematoma Surgical Treatment
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Inhibitory Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor on the Proliferation of Leukemia Cells and Its Anti-Tumor Pharmacology 认领
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作者 Shubo Wang 《生物科学与医学(英文)》 2021年第1期30-40,共11页
The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) on the proliferation of leukemia cells. The two kinds of leukemia cells (human promyelocytic leukemia cell (HL-60) an... The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) on the proliferation of leukemia cells. The two kinds of leukemia cells (human promyelocytic leukemia cell (HL-60) and human acute myelogenous leukemia cell (KG-1)) were selected for in vitro research. Besides, Chidamide, a kind of benzamide HDACI, was applied to induce and culture the HL-60 and KG-1 cells, and the anti-tumor cell proliferation activity of Chidamide on HL-60 and KG-1 was detected by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, which was 5.6 and 6.1 in turn. The cell scratch experiment verified that Chidamide had the metastasis inhibitory effect on HL-60 and KG-1 cells. Flow cytometry was employed to measure the percentage of apoptotic cells, and it was found that the percentage of apoptotic cells was 55.6% ± 1% and 48.6% ± 1% in sequence after HL-60 and KG-1 cells were treated with Chidamide for 36 hours. The number of auto-phagosomes was determined by transmission electron microscopy showing that the number of auto-phagosomes in HL-60 and KG-1 cells was 12 ± 1 and 10 ± 1, respectively after the induction process of Chidamide. The phosphorylated histone H2AX protein (γ-H2AX) recognition antibody immunofluorescence method was adopted to determine the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and the positive rates of HL-60 and KG-1 cells reached 28.41% and 26.35%, respectively after Chidamide treatment. Therefore, Chidamide, as a kind of HDACI, could effectively inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells, so that the results of this experiment had a good guiding meaning for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. 展开更多
关键词 Tumor Cell Proliferation Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor CHIDAMIDE Leukemia Treatment
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Microstructure and mechanical properties of 7A56 aluminum alloy after solution treatment 认领
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作者 Feng-Bin Guo Bao-Hong Zhu +5 位作者 Long-Bing Jin Guo-Jun Wang Hong-Wei Yan Zhi-Hui Li Yong-An Zhang Bai-Qing Xiong 《稀有金属:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2021年第1期168-175,共8页
The effect of solution treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel 7 A56 aluminum alloy plate was investigated by optical microscopy(OM),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron... The effect of solution treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel 7 A56 aluminum alloy plate was investigated by optical microscopy(OM),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC),conductivity,hardness and tensile tests.The results indicate that the coarse second phases in the hot-rolled plate mainly consist of AlZnMgCu quaternary phase and Al7 Cu2 Fe phase,and no Al2 CuMg phase is found.The amount of the second phases gradually reduces with the increase in temperature(450-480℃)and time(1-8 h)during the solution treatment,and the soluble particles are completely dissolved into the matrix after solution treatment at 470℃for 4 h,while the residual phases are mainly Fe-rich phase along the grain boundaries.The recrystallization fraction of the alloy gradually increases with the degree of solution treatment deepened.When the temperature exceeds480℃,over-burning takes place.The mechanical properties of samples treated at 470℃for various times were tested.After the solution treated at 470℃for 4 h,the quenching conductivity and peak-aged hardness of the alloy are 30.8%IACS and HV 204,respectively.The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the samples aged at 120℃for 24 h are 661 and 588 MPa,respectively. 展开更多
关键词 7A56 aluminum alloy Solution treatment Aging treatment MICROSTRUCTURE PROPERTIES
Commentary: “Ockham’s Razor” Doesn’t Apply to “Opioid” Overdose Death 认领
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作者 John F. Peppin Joseph V. Pergolizzi Jr. +1 位作者 Eugene Vortsman Robert B. Raffa 《生物科学与医学(英文)》 2021年第1期98-104,共7页
Polysubstance Abuse (PSA) greatly complicates an attempt to implicate a single drug as sole cause of an overdose death. Since PSA now occurs in the majority of cases of drug overdoses, many or most overdose deaths are... Polysubstance Abuse (PSA) greatly complicates an attempt to implicate a single drug as sole cause of an overdose death. Since PSA now occurs in the majority of cases of drug overdoses, many or most overdose deaths are polysubstance overdose deaths. And since many of the substances involved in a polysubstance Overdose Death (POD) are Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants, many of which can cause overdose death themselves, or synergistically with opioids, it is somewhat puzzling that prescription opioids have been singled out as the cause of these deaths—without reference to PSA. This is particularly puzzling in light of the fact that the issues of PSA and POD have been recognized and discussed in the literature since at least the 1960’s and before. We therefore here consider the question: are we facing an “opioid” crisis or, instead, a “polysubstance crisis”? And we wonder if the issue has been over-simplified, to the detriment of the individuals affected, and to society more broadly. There is a need for an “agnostic” respiratory stimulant that can reverse polysubstance-induced respiratory depression. 展开更多
关键词 OPIOID OVERDOSE Polysubstance Use Polysubstance Overdose TREATMENT
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Affordable Water Filtration Technology for Disinfection By-Product Control for Small Rural Communities by Using Carbon Extracted from Local Fly Ash 认领
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作者 He Zhang Tahir Husain 《矿物质和材料特性和工程(英文)》 2021年第2期148-168,共21页
The fly ash generated from local pulp and paper industries was transformed into activated carbon (AC) through physical activation process in a high temperature tube furnace in this study. Effects of two factors includ... The fly ash generated from local pulp and paper industries was transformed into activated carbon (AC) through physical activation process in a high temperature tube furnace in this study. Effects of two factors including activation temperature and activation time were investigated. Iodine number (IN), methylene blue value (MBV), and surface microstructure were all analyzed to assess the adsorption capacity of different carbon samples. The surface area of the carbon sample increased significantly from 486.44 m<sup>2</sup>/g to 847.26 m<sup>2</sup>/g before and after activation. The jar tests revealed that the use of 0.5 g (AC)/L (water) has the highest adsorption effectiveness. Meanwhile, the column filtration experiment indicated more than 60% of the organic matter can be removed by the carbon barrier within 2 hours filtration. The follow-up chlorination experiment illustrated that the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) could be considerably prevented after filtration. Above all, the cost-effective carbon filtration technology developed in this study can potentially be applied as a pre-treatment technology for intake source waters for local communities. 展开更多
关键词 Activated Carbon Filtration Column Washing Drinking Water Treatment Waste Management
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Study of the Duration of Treatment in Drug Prescriptions Received in Pharmacies in Dakar 认领
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作者 Mbathio Diop Serigne Dame Dieng +4 位作者 Aida Kanouté Bineta Faye Mansoum Ndiaye Cheikh Mouhamadou Mbacké Lô Daouda Faye 《预防医学期刊(英文)》 2021年第3期80-89,共10页
The prescription must include the name of the drugs or products prescribed, dosage form, dosage, directions for use and duration of treatment. However, sometimes errors can occur that can have consequences for the hea... The prescription must include the name of the drugs or products prescribed, dosage form, dosage, directions for use and duration of treatment. However, sometimes errors can occur that can have consequences for the health of patients. Our study concerns the use of medical prescriptions received in pharmacies in the Dakar department. The survey was conducted in 90 pharmacies in these communes, which represent one third of the 270 pharmacies in the department of Dakar. This allowed us to study 2700 prescriptions. The study took place from 1 December 2016 to 30 June 2017, <i><span>i.e</span></i><span>. over a period of 7 months. Our results show that neurologists and urologists have a longer average treatment time than other specialists, with an average of 120 days and 90 days of treatment respectively. Then, the specialist</span><span>s</span><span> who take a long time the drug represent more than 27%, </span><span>and </span><span>require renewal of the drug. In 63.90% of the cases, no notification on the duration of treatment was given by the prescriber. Only 5.39% were only given the mention </span><span>“</span><span>to be renewed</span><span>”</span><span>. At the end of our analysis</span><span>,</span><span> we can say that the prescription must be perfectly legible to avoid confusion by the patient or the pharmacist. The pharmacist then participates in the therapeutic education of the patient and thus helps him/her to live better with his/her disease. Therefore, socio-professional health associations and organisations must provide more continuous training on prescribing to ensure good compliance and above all avoid people buying medicines in the parallel circuit in order to better control health expenditure.</span> 展开更多
关键词 Duration of Treatment PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
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肛肠外科术后常见并发症中医辨证论治的应用体会研究 认领
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作者 赵志伟 《中国社区医师》 2021年第3期133-134,共2页
目的:研究将中医辨证论治应用于肛肠外科术后常见并发症的作用与效果。方法:选取2018年2月-2020年2月实施肛肠外科手术的患者54例,术后均出现不同类型的常见并发症;随机分为两组,各27例。针对不同类型的并发症,对照组实施常规治疗,观察... 目的:研究将中医辨证论治应用于肛肠外科术后常见并发症的作用与效果。方法:选取2018年2月-2020年2月实施肛肠外科手术的患者54例,术后均出现不同类型的常见并发症;随机分为两组,各27例。针对不同类型的并发症,对照组实施常规治疗,观察组实施中医辨证论治,比较两组治疗效果。结果:观察组治疗总有效率(96.30%)明显高于对照组(77.78%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:中医辨证论治应用于肛肠外科术后出现并发症的患者,能够获得更为理想的治疗效果。 展开更多
关键词 肛肠外科 治疗 并发症 效果 中医辨证论治 手术
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The Evaluation Characteristics of Type B Aortic Intramural Hematoma and Ten Years Treatment Outcomes 认领
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作者 Jinguo Zhu Hongbo Hu 《心血管病(英文)》 2021年第1期58-68,共11页
<strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> Type B aortic</span><b&... <strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> Type B aortic</span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">intramural hematoma (IMH-B) is recognized as a subset of aortic dissection. The evolution of uncomplicated IMH-B is very difficult to predict. How and when to deal with this disease is unclear. The present study constructed two models to explore this problem. One is the</span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">morphology evolution model, which explored the risk factors and predictors for the IMH-B patients. Another is the predictive model confirmed the predictors and the time for invasive treatment of uncomplicated IMH-B patients.</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Objective: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">To explore the evolution predictors and detect the time for invasive treatment of uncomplicated IMH-B patients.</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods: </span></b><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The</span><b></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">morphology evolution model demonstrated that all 81 patients were diagnosis with CTA images. The initial and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. The evolution data were collection and measurement from initial and follow-up CTA images data. The predictive model showed that predictors of progression were detected with cox regression analysis.</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">All 81IMH-B patients were followed-up ranged from 1.2 to 36 months (median, 22 months). 26 patients accepted invasive treatment (24 underwent TEVAR and 2 underwent Surgery)</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">. </span><span style="font-family:Ver 展开更多
关键词 IMH-B Aortic Related Events Treatment Strategies
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Spontaneous External Digestive Fistula of Tuberculosis Origin, Medical Treatment: About a Case at the Timbuktu Hospital 认领
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作者 Oumar Ongoïba Idrissa Tounkara +4 位作者 Thiam Souleymane Charles Dara Jacques Saye Karim Dao Djibril Kassogué 《外科学(英文)》 2021年第1期17-22,共6页
In the literature, the management of enterocutaneous fistula of tuberculosis origin is rare. The aim of this work was to report a case of external digestive fistula of tuberculosis origin in a 10-year-old girl in nort... In the literature, the management of enterocutaneous fistula of tuberculosis origin is rare. The aim of this work was to report a case of external digestive fistula of tuberculosis origin in a 10-year-old girl in northern Mali in a situation of armed conflict. She was a 10-year-old patient who was admitted to our general surgery ward for external digestive fistula evolving for more than (4) four years, at admission the general. The karnofsky index was at 40%, she could not sit or hold a cup to drink water. A 3 cm enterocutaneous fistula deafened foul-smelling liquid stools, on clinical examination, the conjunctivas were pale, the lips were dry, the eyes were sunk in the eye sockets, the ribs visible from a distance. The paraclinical aspects (<em>Itra-Dermo-Reaction</em> (IDR) to <em>tubercria</em>, anatomopathology) were positive, specifying the place of medical treatment and evolution under medical treatment. Digestive fistula of tuberculosis origin is a rare condition in surgical settings. 展开更多
关键词 Spontaneous External Digestive Fistula Non-Surgical Treatment Timbuktu
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Palliative Treatment of Locally Advanced Non Metastatic Lung Cancer 认领
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作者 Gael Kietga Wilfried Mosse +8 位作者 Patricia Agbanglanon Bertrand Compaore Davy Nchepo Evrard Seka Sanae Elmajjaoui Hanane Elkacemi Tayeb Kebdani Amine Lachgar Noureddine Benjaafar 《癌症治疗(英文)》 2021年第2期71-77,共7页
<strong>Introduction</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong>: </strong></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">To determine the proportion an... <strong>Introduction</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong>: </strong></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">To determine the proportion and the reasons which lead to palliative treatment in patients initially a candidate for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).</span><span style="font-family:""> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods</span></b><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">A retrospective study including patients followed for locally advanced lung cancer newly diagnosed from April 1, 2016, to 12/31/2017 in the radiotherapy department of the National Oncology Institute who received palliative treatment.</span><span style="font-family:""> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results</span></b><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">We collected 52 patients out of a total of 225 stage III patients (23%) followed by lung cancer candidates for CCRT who had undergone palliative treatment. The mean age in our series was 61.23 years [22</span><span style="font-family:""> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span style="font-family:""> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">81] with 86% male</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">.</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> The majority of patients (71%) had Performance Status (PS) ≤ 2. Histological confirmation was obtained by pathological examination in all our patients. It was an adenocarcinoma (ADK) in 54% of cases;squamous cell carcinoma in 46% of cases. The reasons for palliative treatment were mainly due to dosimetric constraints: large tumor volume 22/52 (42%);the tumor location close to the bone marrow in 15 of 52 (29%) patients;and general Performance Status impairment (29%) in 15 of 52 patients. Palliative treatment consisted of palliative chemotherapy in 37 of 52 patients (71%)</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">among whom 19 (51%) were stable after 2 展开更多
关键词 Lung Cancer Palliative Treatment Locally Advanced
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Water Resources Management and Wastewater Treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C): Application of Galvanic Treatment, Results and Prospectives 认领
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作者 Arthur Kaniki Tshamala Mathieu Kayembe Musala Gigi Kasongo Kalenga 《水资源与保护(英文)》 2021年第3期190-197,共8页
The rapid industrial development and population growth increase the utilization of fresh water resulting in an increase of the amount of wastewater. Several Countries face a double challenge with regard to water resou... The rapid industrial development and population growth increase the utilization of fresh water resulting in an increase of the amount of wastewater. Several Countries face a double challenge with regard to water resources, namely meeting the growing need for water for the population and treating the wastewater generated for application. The toxicity found in these water streams threatens the environment and human health. Hence the urgent need is to treat wastewater. The DRC is not immune from this threat. Its average population growth rate has exceeded the 3% and the number of industries it hosts continues to increase. The wastewater generated by this increasing pressure from urbanization and industrialization must be treated as required in the Congolese legal arsenal. Various factors need to be considered prior choosing the water treatment method. The choice must take into account the imperatives of the moment which are: modernization (local context) and sustainable development (international context). There are several wastewater treatments that are widely used for the removal of toxic elements such as ion exchange, reverse osmosis, chemical precipitation and electro-coagulation just to name a few. The most recent studies have shown that the galvanic technique can be used in the purification of water from domestic and industrial origin to meet drinking water standards. Various researchers have used this technique at laboratory and pilot scale demonstrating its cost-effectiveness as it uses no chemical reagents, consumes less energy and occupies only a small space for processing large flows. However, there are very few studies demonstrating the success of this treatment on an industrial scale. Therefore, this work seeks to understand and master the mechanisms that take place in the galvanic treatment. In addition, this study focuses on the development of a robust prototype that is adaptable to the needs of various users while at the same time being relatively cheap to meet the national needs. 展开更多
关键词 Water Resources WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT Galvanic Treatment
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